Louvre Paris Museum is one of the largest and most visited art museums and a historical monument in the world. The Louvre Paris Museum is located on the Rive Droite Seine, the first arrondissement of Paris, France. Nearly 35,000 objects from prehistory to the 19th century are on display on an area of 60,600 square meters.
This museum is located in the Louvre Palace which was originally a fortress built in the 12th century during the reign of Philip II. Remains of the fort can be seen in the basement of the museum. This building has been enlarged several times to form the current Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles as his private residence, leaving the Louvre to serve as an exhibition space for the royal collections.
In 1692, the building was occupied by the Academy of Inscriptions and Beautiful Letters and the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. The Academy remained at the Louvre for the next 100 years. During the French Revolution, the French National Assembly stipulated that the Louvre should be used as a museum to exhibit the nation’s works.
The museum opened its doors on August 10, 1793 with 537 paintings on display. Most of the work came from the church and royal properties confiscated by the French government. Due to structural problems with the building, the museum was closed from 1796 to 1801. The number of collections of the museum increased under Napoleon’s rule and the museum was renamed the Napoleon Museum. After Napoleon’s defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, most of the works confiscated by his army were returned to their original owners.
The museum’s collection was further enriched during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the Second French Empire, the museum managed to obtain 20,000 collections. The museum’s collection continues to grow with donations and prices that have been increasing since the time of the Third French Republic. In 2008, the museum’s collection was divided into eight conservation departments: collections from ancient Egypt, ancient objects from the Near East, Greece, Etrus, Roman, Islamic, sculpture, decorative art, painting, prints and drawing arts.Ancient Egyptian Collection at the Louvre Museum in Paris
This department has a collection of more than 50,000 pieces, including artifacts from the Nile civilization which dates from 4000 BC to the 4th century AD. The collection is one of the most important in the world, giving a complete picture of the life of Egyptian society in ancient Egypt, the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, the New Kingdom of Egypt, Coptic art and Aegyptus (Roman province), the Ptolemaic period and the period of the Eastern Roman Empire.
The collection of this department was a collection belonging to the French empire at the time, but was added by Napoleon during an expedition in 1798 with Dominique Vivant who later became director of the Louvre. After Jean-François Champollion translated the Rosetta Stone, Charles X of France issued a decree that the department of ancient Egypt must be made. Champollion suggested buying three collections, which were collected by Edmé-Antoine Durand, Henry Salt and Bernardino Drovet to add about 7,000 collections. The number of collections has increased thanks to acquisitions made by Auguste Mariette, founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Mariette brought several cases of archaeological excavations found in Memphis, Egypt, including the sitting scribe or the seated writer.
Guarded by a large Sphinx (dating back to 2000 BC), this collection is placed in more than 20 rooms. Some of his collections include art collections, papyrus scrolls, mummies, equipment, clothing, jewelry, games, musical instruments and weapons. Collections in ancient Egypt include the Gebel el-Arak knife dating from 3,400 BC, the seated scribe and the head of Raja Djedefre. Egyptian medieval art, famous for its gold works and sculptures, is represented by a Seki statue of Amenemhatankh and a statue bearing a sacrifice. The New Kingdom of Egypt and the Coptic Egypt section also have a complete collection. But the statue of the goddess Nephthys and the representation of the goddess Hathor from the limestone show the value of the feeling and wealth of the new kingdom of Egypt.
Other collections include: the Archaeological Collection of the Near East, the human-headed buffalo (shedu), Assyria, limestone, 8th century BC, Nike of Samothrace, marble, dating from 190 BC.
The Near East Archaeological Collection, the second most recent department, dates from 1881 and gives an overview of the civilization of the Near East and the first settlements in the region, before the arrival of Islam. The department is divided into three geographical regions: the Levant, Mesopotamia (Syria, Iraq) and the Persian Empire (Iran). The department’s collections are closely linked to archaeological research collections such as the 1843 exploration of Paul-Emile Botta in Khorsabad and the discovery of the Sargon II palace.
The museum presents exhibitions of Sumerian and Akkad, with several monuments such as the monument of Prince Lagash called Vulture Stele dating from 2450 BC, and the stone stele erected by Naram-Sin King Akkadian, to celebrate the victory over Mount Zagros. The Hammurabi Law Stone, discovered in 1901, measuring 2.25 meters, gives a very complete explanation of Babylonian law.
The Persian collections of this museum come from the early days, such as the head of the funeral and Archer Darius I. This section also contains rare objects from Persepolis that were loaned to the British Museum for the exhibition Ancient Persian held in 2005.
Greek, Etruscan and Roman collections at the Louvre Museum in Paris
The Greek, Etruscan and Roman departments present collections originating from the Mediterranean with dates from the Neolithic to the 6th century AD These collections cover the cycladic period until the collapse of the Roman Empire. This department is one of the oldest in the Louvre Museum, and the collection began with a collection by the kingdom, some of which have even been collected since Francis I.
The collection on which the department focused was originally a marble statue, such as Zenus de Milo. Works such as Apollo Belvedere were imported during the war by Napoleon. However, this work was restored after the fall of Napoleon I in 1815. In the 19th century, the Louvre began collecting works such as vases from Durand’s collections, bronze objects such as the Borghese vase from the National Library.
The first collections of the department were represented by limestone jewelry and objects such as the Lady of Auxerre of 640 BC and the cylindrical Hera of Samos dating from about 570-560 BC. After the 4th century BC, the emphasis on the human form began to increase. This can be seen from the statue of gladiator Borghese. The Louvre Museum has collections from the Hellenistic period, including the Winged Victory of Samothrace (190 BC) and Venus de Milo, which is a symbolism of classical art. The Campana Gallery presents an extraordinary collection of more than 1,000 collections of Greek pottery. In the gallery parallel to the Seine, exhibits a museum collection on Roman sculpture. The museum’s collection of Roman portraits is one of the best. Examples from the collection are portraits of Agrippa and Annius Verus; an example of a bronze statue is Apollo of Piombino from Greece.
Islamic art at the Louvre Museum in Paris
The islamic art collection is the newest department of the Louvre Museum, which covers a period of 13 centuries and 3 continents. The objects on display in this department are ceramics, glass, metal objects, wood, ivory, carpets, textiles and miniatures, including 5,000 works and 1,000 pottery. Initially, the museum was part of the Department of Decorative Arts, which was divided in 2003.
Some of the exhibits include Pyxide d’al-Mughira, an ivory box native to the 10th century AD In Andalusia; Baptistry of St. Louis or better known to Indonesians with the Baptism of St. Louis, engraved brass vase dating from the 13th or 14th century AD of the Mamluk sultanate (Cairo); and the Shroud of Saint-Josse or the Shroud of Saint-Josse dating from the 10th century AD of Iran. The department’s collection also included three pages of Shahnameh, a book of poems written by Ferdowsi written in Persian, and a metal object called Vas Barberini.
Sculpture at the Louvre Museum in Paris
The Department of Sculpture specializes in works made before 1850 and is not part of the Greek, Etruscan and Roman departments. The Louvre Museum is a place of sculptures because the site of the museum still functions as a palace; but only ancient works were exhibited until 1824, with the exception of the dying slave and the rebellious slave of Michelangelo. Initially, the museum’s collection consisted of only 100 pieces, the rest of the collection of royal statues placed in Versailles.
This collection remained in small numbers until 1847, when Léon Laborde was given the power to control the Sculpture department. Laborde developed the Middle Ages section and bought a number of sculptures and sculptures to add to his collection, such as Childebert I and the Stanga Gate. This collection is part of the Department of Antiquities but the collection was granted independent status in 1871 under the direction of director Louis Courajod, who organized the collection to specialize in French work. In 1986, all the works after 1850 were transferred to a new museum called the Musée d’Orsay. A project called The Grand Louvre or the Grand Louvre, separates the department into two exhibition spaces. A collection of French sculptures is on display on the Richelieu wing and foreign artworks on the Denon wing.
Worn out of the Louvre in Paris
The Department of Decorative Arts (French: “Art Objects” has a collection range from medieval Europe, until the middle of the 19th century AD. This department was originally part of the sculpture department. Some of the most valuable collections include vases and bronze objects.
Hard pietre The Durand collection in 1825 added ceramics, coated porcelain and tinted glass, in addition to some 800 additional collections were donated by Pierre Révoil because of the increased interest in the flow of romance, this made Renaissance and medieval art, and donations of Sauvageot increased the number of collections of the museum with 1500 medieval works of art and clear glazed pottery. In 1862, the Campana collection added gold jewellery and pottery with tin glaze, most of which came from the 15th and 16th centuries AD.
Works on display on the first floor of the Richelieu Wings and the Apollo Gallery, named by the painter Charles Le Brun, commissioned by Louis XIV the King of the Sun) to decorate the room on the theme of the sun. Medieval collections include wreaths used for the promotion of Louis XIV of France, the royal scepter of Charles V and porphyry vases dating from the 12th century AD. Collection of storage space for Renaissance art objects, including bronze works by Giambologna Nessus and Deianira and Maximillian’s Hunt wall tapestries. The famous collections of the period that followed were the kolesi vase of Sèvres by Madame de Pompadour and the apartment of Napoleon III in France.
In September 2000, the Louvre dedicated the Gilbert Chagoury and Rose-Marie Chagoury gallery to exhibit a collection of wall tapestries donated by the Chagoury family, including a set (6 pieces) of 16th century AD wall tapestries, sewn with gold threads and silver represents the permanence of the ocean, made in Paris for Colbert de Seignelay, secretary of the national navy.
Paintings at the Louvre Museum in Paris
The Louvre’s collection of paintings includes more than 7,500 pieces dating from the 13th century AD to 1848 and organized by 12 curators. Nearly two-thirds of the total collection is the work of French painters and more than 1,200 works are the result of northern European painters. Italian paintings dominate the collections of Francis I and Louis XIV, some others are works of art that have not been restored since Napoleon’s time, and some are purchases.
The collection belongs to Francis I, most of which are collections obtained from famous Italian painters such as Raphael and Michelangelo, and brought Leonardo da Vinci to his palace. After the French Revolution, royal collections became the heart of the Louvre. When Orsay Station became the Musée d’Orsay in 1986, the museum’s collection was divided and works created after 1848 were transferred to the new museum. Works by French and Northern European painters were placed on the wings of Richelieu and Cour Carrée; spanish and Italian painters were placed on the first floor of the Denon wing.
Some of the museum’s best works have been digitized by the French Museum Research and Restoration Centre.
Prints and drawings of art at the Louvre Museum in Paris
The Department of Graphic Arts and Drawing is more focused on paper work. The origin of the museum’s collection is the work contained in the Royal Collection (King’s Cabinet), which amounts to 8600 pieces, which is in addition to purchases made by the state, such as the purchase of 1200 Fillipo Baldinucci collections in 1806, and donations. It was opened on August 5, 1797 with 415 collections on display at the Apollo Gallery. The collection is divided into three sections: nucleus, King’s Cabinet, 14,000 copper mould plates and donations from Edmond de Rothschild, including 40,000 engravings, 3,000 drawings and 5,000 picture books. The exhibition site was held at the Flora Pavilion; because of the fragility of the paper, only a few are displayed at a time.
These are among the famous paintings in the Musee du Louvre of Paris
- Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, the most famous museum collection.
- Cycladic, 2700-2300 BC
- A priest burns incense in front of Ra-Horakhty-Atum, 900 BC
- Bouquetin Rhyton, 600-300 BC
- The Rider Rampin
- Diomedes and Polyxenes, 540-530 BC
- The Eros medallion, 250-200 BC.
- Egyptian Fayoum
- Marcus Agrippa, 25 BC
- Christ between two apostles, 5th century
- Terracotta cup, 9th century
- Maastricht, reliquary, 11th century
- Michael and the Devil, 12th Century
- Saint Francis receiving the stigma, Giotto, 1300
- The Annunciation, Rogier van der Weyden, 1435
- La Pieta de Villeneuve les Avignon, Enguerrand Quarton, 1460
- An old man and his grandson, Ghirlandaio, 1488
- Money Lenders, Quentin Massys, 1514
- Baltasar de Castiglione, Raphael, 1515
- Rebel Slave, Michelangelo, 1513-1516
- The Crucifixion, Paolo Veronese, 1550
- The Fortune Teller, Caravaggio, 1600
- Charles I on the hunt, van Dyck, 1635
- The lacemaker, Vermeer, 1664
- Infanta Maria Margareta, Velzquez, 1655
- The Shepherds of Arcadia, Poussin, 1640
- Diana bathing, Butcher, 1742
- The Bather, Ingres, 1808
- Freedom guiding the people, Delacroix, 1830
- Psyche revived by cupid’s kiss, Antonio Canova
- Venus de Milo
- Box, ivory and silver, Muslim Spain, 966
- Nike from Samothrace
The main source: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Museum_Louvre