Sri Lanka Tourist Guide Exam Past Papers

Sri Lanka Tourist Guide Exam Past Papers

Sri Lanka Tourist Guide Exam Past Papers

Sri Lanka Tourist Guide Exam Past Papers – Book association license pdf. – Past question papers for examinations in Sri Lanka government examination calendar august 2021. Grama Niladari examination written examination to test computer literacy and efficiency bar examination.

Tourism in Sri Lanka is growing rapidly. For centuries, Sri Lanka has been a popular place of attraction for foreign travelers. The Chinese traveler Fa-Hien visited Sri Lanka as early as the 410’s AD/CE, and in the twelfth century, Italian explorer Marco Polo claimed Sri Lanka to be the “best island of its size in the world”.
The government initiatives in the development of tourism date back to 1937 when the Ceylon Tourist Bureau was established. However, it was closed down in September 1939 due to World War II. After Sri Lanka’s independence, the promotion of tourism was again considered by re-establishing the Ceylon Tourist Board which took over the function of the Tourist Bureau. More formal recognition for the country’s tourism sector was given with the enactment of Act No. 10 of 1966. This provided the legislation for the establishment of the Ceylon Tourist Board. Since then the Ceylon Tourist Board has functioned as the state agency, responsible for the development and promotion of the tourism sector in Sri Lanka.

In October 2007 according to Section 2 of the Tourism Act No. 38 of 2005, the Sri Lanka Tourist Board (Act No 10 of 1966) was replaced by the Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority (SLTDA).

Currently, Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority has classified Sri Lanka into several resort regions suitable for tourism development.
Colombo and Greater Colombo Resort Region: The Colombo and Greater Colombo Resort Region spread along with Mount Lavinia in the south to Negombo in the north. Colombo city is the main part of the zone and is the center for business activities, conferences, and sports events in the country. Colombo serves as both a gateway and stopover point for international tourists.
South Coast Resort Region: The south coast zone extends from Wadduwa to Tissamaharama. The zone has been divided into two main regions. The first region extends from Wadduwa to Galle. Coastal areas like Kalutara, Beruwala, Bentota, Dedduwa, Madu Ganga, Balapitiya, Ahungalla, and Hikkaduwa are included in this region. The second region, extending from Galle to Tissamaharama, includes Unawatuna, Koggala, Weligama, Mirissa, Matara, Tangalle, and Hambantota areas as sub-points of the zone.
East Coast Resort Region: The East Coast Resort Region extends from Kuchchaveli in the north to Pottuvil in the south. The main tourism zones in this region are Arugam Bay, Pasikudah, Trincomalee, and Nilaveli.
West Coast Resort Region: The West Coast Resort Region extends along with Kalpitiya, Marawila, and Waikkala areas.
High Country Resort Region: Nuwara Eliya, Bandarawela, and Maskeliya are included in the High Country Resort Region.
Ancient Cities Resort Region: This region has five world heritage sites, namely Anuradhapura, Dambulla, Kandy, Polonnaruwa, and Sigiriya. Other regions include Habarana, Giritale, Matale and Victoria.
Other Resort Regions: This includes Yala, Udawalawa, Wasgamuwa, Pinnawala, and Ratnapura area.
Shared Tourism with India
In the past, ferry services between India and Sri Lanka for tourists have been introduced and suspended repeatedly because of their low usage.[6]The low usage of the old ferry services could be due to the high cost of the former services. As of now, the only way for tourists to access India from Sri Lanka is by air. In 2019 negotiations about ferry services between Colombo and Tuticorin and between Talaimannar and Rameshwaram began. There is also a proposal to operate a cruise/ferry service between Colombo and Kochi in Kerala. The Indian and Sri Lankan governments are working closely together to connect the two neighboring countries better.  The Sri Lankan Minister of Tourism Development John Amaratunga indicated that the ferry service will help tourists from both sides to travel at a very low cost.

Tourist arrivals – Sri Lanka Tourist Guide Exam Past Papers

Overseas visitors to Sri Lanka 2002–2018
Data from the Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority (SLTDA)
When the government decided to develop the tourism sector as a separate sector of the country’s economy by establishing the Ceylon Tourist Bureau in 1966, there were 18,969 foreign tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka. There was an upward trend of tourist arrivals until 1982, with the exception of 1971. Between 1976 and 1982, tourist arrivals had increased 24% per year. The tourist traffic in 1982 showed that there was a remarkable growth in the number of tourists, with 407,230 arrivals. However, with the beginning of the civil war in 1983, the growth of tourist arrivals declined and stagnated to around 300,000 – 500,000 arrivals annually.

The civil war that had lasted over 25 years was ended in 2009 as LTTE separatists were defeated by government forces. In 2009 the tourist arrivals numbered 448,000, and in 2015, 1,798,380, showing over 300 percent growth in six years.

Most visitors arriving to Sri Lanka on a short term basis in 2020 were from the following countries:
Rank Country 2016 2017 2018 2019(Jan-Mar) 2020(Jan-Mar)
356,729 384,628 424,887 107,147 89,357
United Kingdom
188,159 201,879 254,176 85,468 55,455
58,176 59,191 65,497 39,187 49,397
4  Germany 133,275 130,227 156,888 49,429 34,507
3  China 271,577 268,952 265,965 78,212 26,147
5  France 96,440 97,282 106,449 43,144 24,838
7  Australia 74,496 81,281 110,928 30,619 20,283
8  United States 54,254 57,479 75,308 30,070 16,842
9  Ukraine 16,073 16,776
10  Canada 18,320 12,436
11  Maldives 95,167 79,371 76,108
12  Netherlands 41,373 51,148 57,160
Total Foreign Arrivals 2,050,832 2,116,407 2,333,796 1,913,702 496,427

Domestic tourism

There is a significant domestic tourist segment making excursions in Sri Lanka. In 2014 six million Sri Lankans traveled within the country as domestic tourists. The main purposes of travel by domestic tourists are pilgrimage, family holiday, study works, and sightseeing. The main destinations of domestic tourists are Anuradhapura, Kataragama, Nuwara Eliya, Kandy, Sri Pada, Polonnaruwa, Sigiriya and Dambulla. Domestic tourism is noticeable during school vacations and on weekends.

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The Role Of Tourist Guides And Their Impacts On Sustainable Tourism Development: A Critique On Sri Lanka

J.A. Rudmi Chehanika Sandaruwani
Dept. of Tourism Management, Faculty of Management Studies Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka
P.O. Box 02, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka – [email protected]
W.K. Athula C. Gnanapala
Senior Lecturer
Dept. of Tourism Management, Faculty of Management Studies Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka
P.O. Box 02, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka – [email protected]

Tourism is a multidisciplinary industry and therefore involves many different stakeholders for its operational activities. An essential element for sustainable tourism development in any tourist destination is the participation of active stakeholders and their collaborations. Among them, the tourist guides play a major role in the tourism industry since tourists need to have a clear picture of the country and its offerings, laws, rules and regulations, and other expected behavioral patterns.

Moreover, guides should have the ability to transform the tourist visit into an unforgettable experience. In addition to the quality and ability of tourist guides, there are many problems and issues associated with their services that can impact the ultimate satisfaction of the tourists.

Therefore, the primary objective of this research is to recognize the impact of tourist guides in moving tourism development in a sustainable direction. Additionally, the study investigates the problems and difficulties faced by tourist guides while serving in the industry and their effect on tourists’ satisfaction.

The study was conducted using the mixed methodology and collected data from different sources such as questionnaire surveys with tourists, semi-structured interviews, discussions with tourist guides and the different stakeholders, and personal observations. Additionally, tourists’ comments posted on the TripAdvisor web page were reviewed to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the issue, from the tourists’ perspective.

It was revealed that tourist guides contend with multiple issues and problems including unfair competition from unlicensed tourist guides, less respect, and recognition from society and trade, low remuneration, lack of job security, poor and unfriendly working conditions while performing their duties and responsibilities. Also, many tourists guides have low education and training and, therefore, exhibit a low service quality. Furthermore, the guides’ behaviors may negatively impact the industry’s sustainability by forcing tourists to buy things or attend activities at their own expenses; relying on clichéd introductions to the sights; demonstrating insufficient knowledge about tourism products, services, and access routes; not being conversant with foreign languages; charging and demanding tips; harassment of tourists and bad service attitudes.


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1. Introduction
Tourism is a multifaceted industry and its operation involves the collective efforts of various players and they bear their own roles and responsibilities for a sound tourism movement. As an intermediary between hosts and guests, tourist guides act in a wide range of roles when conducting guided tours. According to the studies (Cohen, 1985; Fine & Speer, 1985; Holloway, 1981; Hughes, 1991), tourist guides play different roles within their work, such as leader, salesperson, teacher, information-giver, and organizer. Since tourism is a highly human-oriented and pleasure industry, it is very difficult to run the industry without getting the support of tour facilitators including tourist

They have become one of the key players with extensive control and influence over the quality of services rendered. The implications for overall tourist satisfaction and the future wellbeing of the industry are substantial. On a practical day-to-day level, there are numerous complaints about the roles and behavior of tourist guides due to the mismatch between expectations and actual services of the tourist guides and that is problematic for multiple reasons.
Therefore, the main objective of this study is to explore the role of tourist guides and their impacts on moving tourism development in sustainable directions. Additionally, the study will investigate the problems and difficulties faced by the tourist guides and the attendant effects on tourist satisfaction.

2. Literature Review
2.1 Introduction to Tourist Guides and Their Roles
Tour guiding has been the subject of extensive research activity over the past 30 years. Robotic
(2010) explains that “the origin and evolution of the role of tourist guide was expounded by Cohen
(1985),” whose pioneering research in tourism helped lay the foundation for contemporary scientific
scholarship focused on tourism. The broad range of transactions conducted by tour guides has been
analyzed by numerous scholars. The complex nature of tourist guides’ functions, however, precludes
a singular means of describing or summarizing their diversified roles in the context of rapidly
expanding markets for tourism worldwide. Some tourist guides, for example, are self-employed and
operate either semi-autonomously or fully independently by creating and marketing their own tours
as freelance tour guides. Others are employed by the travel industry and conduct predesigned
tours, while many guides are employed by corporations or organizations.
The World Federation of Tourist Guide Associations (2005) defines a tourist guide as a person who
guides visitors in the language of their choice and interprets the cultural and natural heritage of an
area. Pond (1993) adds that a skillful guide is one of the most valuable assets a tourism company can
have, given the guides’ ubiquitous and highly visible role in a business or company, as they interact
with visitors frequently and for sustained periods of time. Despite multiple definitions for tourist
guides, an internationally accepted definition is provided by the International Association of Tour
Managers (IATM) and the European Federation of Tourist Guide Association (EFTGA, 1998). Thus, a
A tourist guide is defined as a person who guides groups or individual visitors from abroad or from the
the home country through specific historical sites or venues, and enthusiastically promotes the cultural
and natural heritage of the tourist destination in an entertaining manner, and in the language of the
visitor’s choice.
Ap and Wong (2000) highlight that tourist guides provide an important part of the interface
between the host destination and visitors since front-line employees are very much responsible for
the overall impression and satisfaction with the tour services offered by a destination. Therefore,
the job of the tourist guides is described as leading, interpretative, inspiring, and entertaining in a specific geographical or environmental setting in which their specialized knowledge of various
languages are applied.

2.2 Professionalism in Tour Guiding
As unofficial ambassadors of the host country, fundamental prerequisites for tourist guides are
positive personal, ethical, and moral characteristics including honesty, modesty, dignity, and
trustworthiness. Equally important are intellectual qualities including comprehensive knowledge and
a strong grasp of the subject matter, good analytical skills, a comparative perspective for historic
cultural sites, and a commitment to continuous learning and personal enrichment. Moreover,
essential professional qualities include the ability to communicate and present facts in the visitor’s
language, the capacity to lead and organize groups, correct posture and eye contact, and the ability
to tell stories (Tourist Guide Lecturer’s Code, 1985; Hettiarachchi, 2011).
The quality of services provided by tour guides correlates strongly with levels of overall tourist
satisfaction. Most tourists have favorable tour experiences based on the good to the excellent quality
of services rendered through touring the most coveted points of attraction (Parasuraman et al.,
1988). However, it must also be noted that the collective negative behavior of tourist guides can
be a significantly debilitating factor in levels of tourist satisfaction. For example, Pathirana &
Gnanapala (2015) underscores inappropriate behaviors of site guides and helpers at cultural sites
including demands for unreasonable fees, misrepresentation of services offered, deceptive and false
information disseminated to tourists, physical and emotional harassment, and other unethical
Geve et al. (1991) suggest that tour guides are responsible for tourist satisfaction with services
provided in local destinations. Furthermore, tour guides can generate repeat and new business, and
impact the image of tour companies, destinations, and even the tour guides themselves (Mossberg,
1995; Pearce, 1984; Schmidt, 1979; Whipple et al., 1988; Wong & Ap, 1998). It is widely accepted
that tour guides contribute not only to tourist satisfaction, but to the destination image, marketing, and
branding (Baum, Hearns & Devine, 2007; Wong & Kwong, 2004).
Heung (2010) presents three major concepts to assess the perceived service quality of tour guides:
core services delivery, customer orientation, and communication effectiveness. Tour guides must
possess the knowledge content for effective delivery of core services. Increased quantities of
information provided by tour guides contribute to the higher quality of services provided as most
tourists rate their tours favorably on the basis of knowledge derived from a guide. The guide must
have the capacity to articulate background information on the rich cultural heritage of a particular
destination and must be aware of the policies, rules, laws, and practices that are followed by a
certain country, state, or region to enlighten tourists and enrich their overall travel experience.
The understanding of professionalism lies in the basic concept of the profession. Cogan (1953) defines
a profession as “a vocation whose practice is founded upon an understanding of the theoretical
structure of some department of learning or science, and upon the abilities accompanying such
understanding”. Barber (1963) suggests that professional behavior may be defined in terms of four
essential attributes: first, a high degree of generalized and systematic knowledge; second, a primary
orientation to community interest rather than to individual self-interest; third, a high degree of self-control of behavior through codes of ethics, and finally, a system of rewards (monetary and
honorary) that is primarily a set of symbols of work achievement.
In the final analysis, it is imperative that guides prioritize tourists’ needs and interests first in
providing a superior value of services and enhancement of the overall tourist experience (Heung
2008). Critical tour leadership and management skills, therefore, include the ability to organize and
handle tourist groups, coordination of affiliated vendors and suppliers of goods and services, time
management, scheduling and logistics, and day-to-day problem-solving. Tourist groups typically
comprise a diverse range of individuals from many walks of life and varied backgrounds, thus
interpersonal skills and the capacity for understanding cultural differences are paramount.

3. Methodology
The study was carried out adopting both quantitative and qualitative methods. A questionnaire
survey was employed mainly to collect data since it is the best method available to look at tourists’
attitudes and orientations regarding the service of tourist guides by gathering qualitative and
quantitative information through both closed and open-ended questions. Through the
questionnaire, the study measured the tourists’ satisfaction regarding the moral, intellectual, and
professional qualities of tourist guides. The cluster sampling method was used to reduce the regional
biases and gained 121 completed questionnaires filled by the foreign tourists.
Interviews are a widely used data collection method that allows researchers to focus on meaning
rather than facts (Qu and Dumay, 2011). Also, the data collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with 22 tourist guides representing 12 national and 10 chauffeur guides
respectively. Interview participants were selected via a non-random, convenience, and snowball
sampling method. This non-probability sample was used because it was relatively easy to determine
appropriate respondents however it is important to note that the participants cannot be considered
to the representative of a target population.
Non-participant observations were applied at various tourist sites in Negombo, Colombo, Kandy,
Sigiriya to observe and record ways that tourist guides conduct tours, their interpretation skills at
the sights, their behavior, and the personal appearance; allowing the researcher to determine the
accuracy of the information gained in document analysis and survey questionnaires.
Apart from that, the researchers had semi-structured interviews with a representative from
government and other related tourism bodies (SLITHM, SLTDA), Sri Lanka Institute of National
Tourist Guide Lecturers (SLINTGL), Sri Lanka Institute of Chauffeur Tourist Guide Lecturers (SLICTGL)
and managerial bodies in travel agencies and hotels covering 5 from each. Finally, the researchers
have reviewed the tourists’ comments that appeared on TripAdvisor and VirtualTourist web pages to
identify their ideas on tourist guides in Sri Lanka.
The information used for this research is also based on a review of the literature and documents
relating to the Sri Lanka Tourism industry and tour guiding profession. The data sources include
government policy documents (such as Annual Statistical Report produced by Sri Lanka Tourism
Development Authority in 2013, TOURISM ACT No 38 OF 2005, Annual Report- Sri Lanka Institute of
Tourism & Hotel Management, 2013), government media releases, peer-reviewed academic journals, and books, customer feedback forms handled by various travel agencies. The authors were aware
that the documents used could have varied in terms of the quality of the data used (Bowen, 2009;
Rosenberger & Stanley, 2006). The data collection process was conducted from January 2015 to
April 2015.

4. Findings & Discussion
4.1 The role of tour guides and their impacts
The study has identified both the positive and negative impacts of tour guides in moving Sri Lanka
tourism development in a sustainable direction.
The tourist guides occupy key front-line positions in the tourism industry and bring extensive
benefits to Sri Lanka’s tourism industry i.e. goodwill, ambassadorship, representative of the
country’s unique history, and spokesperson for the nation’s distinctive cultural heritage. They have
the unparalleled ability to enrich the knowledge level of individual tourists and transform the
tourists’ visit into a pivotal learning experience through their knowledge and interpretations.
It is essential to highlight that 66% of surveyed tourists have not taken the services of tourist guides
at any point during their visit due to the independent schedules and routes, no flexibility, guides
demands for exorbitant fees, and widespread cheating of tourists. The freedom of autonomous
travel in a trouble-free environment creates a powerful incentive for tourists to disengage from
tourist guides altogether. The survey data also illuminate the negative outcomes the country may
experience as a direct consequence of unprofessional conduct and the misbehavior of tourist
guides. Findings revealed that the tourist guides lack intellectual and professional skills rather than
moral skills.

Lack of intellectual skills
The fast development of the Sri Lankan tourism industry demands more talented, capable, and
knowledgeable tour guides. However, the study revealed that only 27% of tourist guides have
completed their secondary education level and most of them started tour guiding with their primary
education and have improved through experiences. The researchers could identify through travel
agencies that only 31% of the tourist guides may have got a valid license and work as licensed tourist

guides. Further, revealed that most of the complaints are related to the unlicensed guides. However,
some unlicensed tourist guides may perform better than the licensed with the vast experience they
may have got from the long service in the industry.
Those unlicensed tourist guides without proper training exhibit a lack of intellectual skills and it
results in clichéd introduction to the sights and poor demonstration and presentation skills,
insufficient knowledge about tourism products/destinations and tend to tell lies when tourists are
asking questions which the tourist guide to be unknown. In such cases, it affects negatively for the
tourist satisfaction and also a black mark for an image of the whole tourist guides and the country as
Also, the foreign language proficiency of most of the guides are very poor and the travel agents
have faced difficulty to find qualified tour guides for the markets Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Russian,
Spanish, French with compared to other languages.

Lack of professional skills
 Unstable quality of service
It is revealed that unqualified and unlicensed tourist guides provide low-quality services. During the
round tour, tourist guides get push money from the relevant organization in which the tourists
receive different goods and services. Therefore, the guides try their best to persuade tourists to buy
things or spend money on certain items or activities and also want the tourists to stay more at the
shopping centers rather than sight-seeing. Probably, some tourists are not interested in certain
items or shopping, so they won’t follow the guidance of the tourist guides. Under such
circumstances, some guides show a bad attitude towards those tourists, and the quality of services
declines sharply. If tourists let the guides get lots of push money during their trip, the tourist guides
will become extremely hospitable and enthusiastic. In some other cases, if the tourists are from high
spending markets, the guides are very careful in providing services and they are usually fully prepared before the trip and service attitude is also extremely good. When the tourists are from low-income countries, especially from India, the tourist guides will be perfunctory in providing services, making the service quality decline sharply under such circumstances. All those situations might make
the service quality unstable, and tourists may sense the difference in the services they provide.

 Lacking good faith
The lacking good faith of the tour guides is a significant problem for the tourism industry. The good faith
of guides may display in many ways such as whether they serve according to the reception plans and
also whether they are lured by the devious interests. However, in many real cases, the study could notice
that many guides do not display their good faith. They cheat the tourists together with the
merchants and deviate from professionalism. Some guides arbitrarily changed the route and
took the tourists to go shopping for places with which they have personal contacts instead of company-recommended places. Finally, the tourists complained about the quality of the products that they
purchased. Especially, the image of guides in the eyes of tourists is deteriorating due to their lack of
good faith. It might finally affect the whole image of the company and the country itself. Therefore,
every tourist guide should have good faith when providing services.

 Charging tips at guides’ own will
Many tourist guides ask for tips from tourists which has greatly harmed the image of tourist guides.
Guide tip means the gratuity for the guide at the client’s own discretion based on the quality and
level of service they receive and guides under no circumstances request or demand. But some
guides demand or argue for tips until they get a satisfactory amount. The guide services
become materialized because of the charging of tips, which greatly harmed the moods of tourists.
4.2 The problems and difficulties faced by the tour guides and their effect on tourist satisfaction
The interviews had with the tourist guides, could identify various problems and difficulties
faced by them while serving the industry. The identified problems and difficulties have been
discussed under three major criteria.

4.2.1 Nature of the tourist guides’ job
 Low remuneration
Tourist guides may have two options in dealing with the travel agencies; either they can work as
freelancers or can permanently be attached to a travel agency and work with back-to-back tours. The
tourist guides who are permanently attached to the travel agency normally get some kind of
allowance but it is not fairly sufficient with comparing to the service they offer to the company even
without having time to concern about their personal life. Apart from that normally chauffeur
guides get a Batta per day and the national guides get their guide fee per day. So in some cases,
travel agencies try to cut off their Batta or guide fees tactically just like paying them per night basis.
However, the amount they receive as Batta is not sufficient to cover their daily expenses.
The law remuneration sometimes leads them to earn money through various tactics like commission
through tourist purchases, tips, etc. The unnecessary forcing for this type of activity leads the
tourists towards dissatisfaction.

 Lack of job security
Tourist guides are attached to the travel agencies on an assignment basis; therefore, there is no
security for their jobs. At any time the travel agency has the authority to fire them in any case; as
there is no any formal appointment or any contract. Also, there is no provision of EPF, ETF, or any
pension scheme for tourist guides those who play a big role in bringing the foreign exchange to the Sri
Lankan economy. The seasonality of the demand may affect the tourist guides keeping them out of job sometimes for months. This problem sometimes leads in the minds of tourist guides to earn as
much as possible when they got the opportunity.

 Safety and security issues
Because of the very nature of the tourist guides’ job, traveling with tourists at times on long
itineraries make them vulnerable. Being loosely connected with travel agencies there is no protection in terms of life insurance or any medical insurance. Also, there is a potential to infect
various diseases both communicable and non-communicable.
4.2.2 Problems related to the socio-culture

 Unfair competition
Licensed tourist guides have to face big issues related to unfair competition from unlicensed
tourist guides. Unlicensed tourist guides would often cut prices and also damage the guide’s
professionalism by their poor quality of service and malpractices. This will harm the whole image of
the Sri Lankan tourism industry.

 Less respect and recognition from the society and trade
Many guides are not much happy about the respect and recognition they get from society and
trade. Furthermore, their profession is not respectable among their family members as it is not a
permanent career and the negative publicity. And also in case of some problematic incidents, the
local police and authorities often mal-treat the tourist guides.

 Touts/hawkers/beggars
Tourist guides may face some threats from some disturbed characters like touts, hawkers, beach
boys, and beggars who are trying to disturb the tourists while on the tour. So the guides have to
protect them from them while interpreting at the tour sites.

 Restrictive for female tourist guides
There are only a few numbers of female tourist guides working in this tourism field. That may be due
to the myth that females cannot survive in the tourism industry. In some cases, it is true as the
nature of the tourist guide’s jobs is more challenging.

4.2.3 Problems related to poor and unfriendly working conditions Poor Accommodation
Most of the chauffeur guides are not happy about their accommodation facilities (driver quarters) as
many hotels run them inappropriately. As a policy, some hotels do not provide accommodation for
chauffeur guides on their premises, especially in the Colombo city hotels. In such cases, travel agents
send the chauffeur guides to the nearest budget accommodation or some travel agents ask the
guides to find a place by their own expenses.
National tourist guides are not vulnerable to this poor accommodation as they get the guide room in
the same place where tourists are staying. But in some cases, travel agents try to sell the guide room
which they get on a complimentary basis, to the tourist group itself and find another cheaper
place around the hotel for the tourist guide in order to increase their profit. Unfriendly working conditions in Travel agencies
 Payment delaying and cheating for the guide tips
Most of the travel agencies take much time, even for 4 or 5 months, to settle the relevant charges of
the tour guides. Therefore, the guides need their value for the service within some considerable
time period.
In some cases, the tourists have paid for the tour package including the guide tips to the tour
operator in advance. But those tour operators and travel agents cheat the guides by keeping it with
them or sometimes give the guide half of the due amount.

 Often tour operators use unlicensed guides to cut costs
This is a very common practice by most small-scale travel agencies to reduce their package cost.
This will be a threat to the licensed tourist guides; facing unfair competition in the field. Unlicensed
tourist guides with a lack of proper training and experience demonstrate the poor quality in
service and damage the professionalism of tourist guides as a whole.

 Overpromise so as to sell the package
Some tour operators and travel agents tend to overpromise the tourists to sell the tour packages,
however, when tourists arrive with high expectations, they are really disappointed. In some cases,
tourist guides are pressurized to take up assignments (especially in peak periods) for which they are
not prepared or not experts in some special languages other than guiding in English.
In some cases, travel agencies overpromise and sell tour packages with a tight schedule; compact all
the destination attractions to be visited within the limited time period. In such cases tourists could have
a glimpse of scenic spots; leading to dissatisfaction.

 No power and rights of tour guides
Tourist guides would have to stick highly to the tour itinerary, and they cannot deviate it even the
tourists may request it. Therefore, the tourist guides don’t have any power and authority to do any
simple changes without getting the permission of the relevant tour operators or travel agencies. This
will lose the opportunity to do the extra mile for the clients.

 Get last-minute information
In some cases guides may receive the tour details at the last minute which does not allow them
the opportunity to prepare, organize themselves for the assignment is well advanced and it may reduce
the service quality. This mostly happens to the guides who are permanently attached to the
travel agencies as they get back-to-back tours without any time relief.
And also get last-minute information about cancellations of tours by travel companies. This badly affects the freelance tourist guides as they lose other opportunities offered by other companies
and lose both assignments.

 Pressurize to visit particular shopping outlets
Travel agencies pressurize the tourist guides to patronize particular outlets and persuade tourists to
visit those places. This mostly happens in shopping with the aim of having the company
commission. If the guides do not accompany tourists to those suggested outlets, the guides, jobs
are at stake because some travel agencies do not give the upcoming tours as their tourists haven’t
done any purchases from those shopping outlets for the three past consecutive tours. This will
indirectly pressurize the tourist guides in forcing their clients to shop in those outlets.

 Problems in dealing with drivers
Some tourist guides have to face difficulties in dealing with the drivers. Some drivers argue with the
guides in many cases, especially in shopping commissions. Similarly, the tourist guides also cheat the
drivers in the shopping commission.

5. Mitigating Strategies
The researchers suggest the following mechanisms to mitigate the identified problems and to
enhance the service professionalism of the tourist guides in Sri Lanka.

5.1 Responsibilities of the government
 a proper mechanism to demotivate unlicensed tourist guides
There are around 1400 licensed chauffeur guides and 1600 national guides however the amount
maybe doubles with the unlicensed tourist guides. The authorities must do their own share in saving
the industry by making it mandatory for tour guides to have a valid license and that no person is
allowed to operate as a tour guide without a valid license.
The SLTDA cannot control the issue alone and the Tourist Police should have a proper system to take
actions against the unauthorized tourist guides and bring them before the law. Unfortunately, the
Tourist Police lack the required numbers and trained personnel to provide the services. And also the
Tourist Police have no powers over there; only an assistant director of the Tourism Development
Authority has the authority to make an arrest. The police could only escort such or higher-ranking
officers. When the tourist police caught an unlicensed tourist guide, they only get the required
information filled in their database and then advise him/her and relief and there is no proper
legal punishment. This is a loophole of the existing law. The researchers think it’s high time the laws
be amended to give more powers to police.
Further, the SLTDA should have a proper mechanism to stop the hiring of unlicensed tourist guides
by travel agencies in order to cut their package cost. When the tourist police catch the unlicensed
tourist guides, the part of the offense committed by the tourist guides goes to the travel agencies
who appointed them to serve their clients without a valid license. Therefore, the relevant travel
agency also should be punished legitimately.

 Improve the Efficiency of the tourist guide training program
It is identified that unlicensed tourist guides are more than the licensed guides in any category and
the demand also increasing very rapidly due to the rapid increase of the inbound tourists. However,
authority and responsibility of the training of tour guides lie at SLTDA, however, they do not have
the capacity to fulfill the growing demand. Therefore, SLITHM’s guide training programs and their
procedures should be more efficient and should cope with industry requirements in order to
facilitate authorized tourist guides’ demand. As a solution, the training responsibility of the tour
guides can transfer to the provincial tourism ministries and the state universities that conduct
tourism management degree programs. However, it is essential to have a uniform syllabus and a
teaching methodology.

 Continuous monitoring of the performance of tourist guides
It’s necessary to have proper monitoring of the tourist guides’ guiding practices even after they
licensed from the SLTDA. The monitoring can be achieved through the guide license renewal
process. It’s better to require a performance evaluation result sheet or a recommendation letter from the
particular travel agencies that they are working for in order to ensure the service quality.

 Ensure the quality of guide accommodation and other facilities

According to the guidelines laid down by the SLTDA, a tourist guide accompanying a group of seven should be provided accommodation in the same hotel. The regulation has been made in view of the fact that most of the tourists feel at home and secure with a tourist guide being around. There had been occasions where some hotels housed tourist guides in places lesser in comfort and facilities. So the government should do the spot investigations to check the quality of the guides’ accommodation facilities and fine the hoteliers those who not obey for their guidelines. Further, proper guidelines or regulations should be laid down for the chauffeur guides regarding the provision of accommodation rather than sending them to the nearest budget accommodation.

 The appearance of tour guides & code of ethics
It is necessary to prescribe a suitable uniform for all the five categories of tourist guides then it will
be able to distinguish them clearly. Also, it is necessary to have standards for physical appearance
including personal hygiene. Further, should introduce codes of ethics for tour guides then will help
to solve most of the associated issues.

5.2 Involvement of tour operators and travel agents
 Establishing Reasonable Salary System
Salary is a core factor which the tourist guides are concerned about more. A reasonable salary system is the best
way to stop the “grey income” of tourist guides. Therefore, it is crucial to establish and enhance a
reasonable salary system. An unreasonable salary system will greatly harm the enthusiasm of tourist
guides in providing services. Therefore, establishing a reasonable and effective salary system is good
for enhancing the service quality of guides. The company should set the basic salary of tourist guides
according to their levels and work abilities. The payment should be differentiated according to the
professional skills of the guides. The company should give a reasonable bonus for the tourist guides
those who perform well and also have good records and lengthy service period, with considering
the feedback of tourists to encourage them to work harder.

 Have a trusting culture
Travel agents should have good faith in dealing with tourist guides and give due respect to them.
The travel agencies should settle the respective tour settlements without delay and pay the
virtual value for their service without cheating the guide tips and other commissions.
 Give some reasonable degree of authority and power
Travel agents should give the tourist guides some reasonable degree of authority and power to cater
to the clients’ emergency requirements and also for situational handling. While on the tour,
tourist guides may have limited power to make the best decisions to satisfy the tourists’ needs. Therefore,
the travel agencies should be more flexible and give some percentage of authority and power to
cater to the client’s requirements such as within the limited mileage, an extra amount of money to
purchase some goods for them and etc.

6. Conclusion
The tour guide as “the soul” of the tourism industry plays an essential role in the success of the
sector by delivering high-quality services. Working on the front line of tourism reception, tour guides
are leading players in enhancing the image and the reputation of tourist destinations, with the
service quality that they deliver is regarded as an important barometer for measuring the overall success of
the tourism industry.
When considering the role of tour guides in a Sri Lankan context, the proliferation of complaints
documenting service quality issues and the unprofessional conduct of tourist guides constitute a
clear and unambiguous call for action. The researcher concludes that the tourist guides themselves
have the core responsibility to improve their morale, intellectual and professional qualities to resolve
problems stemming from patterns of individual misbehavior, sub-standard abilities, and lack of
service professionalism. The travel agents and hoteliers have corollary responsibilities to build a
culture of trust, mutual respect, and healthy business practices in dealing with tourist guides. Finally, the Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority, with the help of the Tourist Police, should develop and
implement cost-effective mechanisms to discourage unlicensed tourist guides and associated
malpractices. An efficient system of licensing through proper training and education is an important
first step.

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Best thing to do in Sri Lanka Tourism
The best thing to do in Sri Lanka Tourism

100 Sri Lanka Tourist Guide Exam Past Papers

All Blue Badge students may be required to take heritage understanding examinations. underneath are links to beyond papers, that have been sat by means of previous applicants, unaltered in any manner, and ready to be had for download.
Background know-how papers primarily based on the vintage background know-how Syllabus are applicable to guides authorized before April 2018. The new heritage expertise Syllabus is applicable to courses permitted from April 2018 onwards. Beyond papers are free of rate and the hyperlinks provide an immediate download in pdf format.
Answers will no longer be furnished. All answers to the questions inside the papers are easily source able from the internet and many available books.
Please click on the identity of every paper to download your desired paper.

TUESDAY, 20th October 2020 at 14:00
Time allowed: 2 HOURS (a hundred and twenty mins)

This paper incorporates 200 brief solution questions, all of which must be responded to.

  • 1. Please write your candidate number at the top of this web page and on the pinnacle proper-hand corner of all of the relaxation of the pages and separate sheets (the invigilator has your variety).
  • 2. The solutions need to be written on the question paper.
  • 3. Unless in any other case special, names need to always be the first call AND surname (circle of relatives calls).
  • 4. Please write legibly in pen.

CANDIDATE No.:………………………….

  1. Supply another name for the architectural style we call Norman.
  2. Call two of the substances used to make a wattle and daub wall.
  3. Call the 18th / early 19th-century panorama gardener recognized for his well-known “pink books” of designs.
  4.  In what part of construction could you discover a purlin, hammer-beam, and queen submit?
  5. What turned into grown in a physic lawn?
  6. What’s a pilaster?
  7. In which century did bay home windows become a common characteristic of houses’ built-in cities?
  8. In a church what is the call given to the gallery under the clerestory?
  9. Call the architect who designed each castle Howard and Blenheim Palace.
  10. Call the father and son who were gardeners and plant creditors inside the 17th Century.
  11. What name is given to space enclosed with the aid of the curtain wall of a medieval castle?
  12. What do the letters RIBA stand for?
  13. Call the technique of reducing evergreen shrubs into an animal or geometric shapes.
  14. The primary two stages of English gothic architecture are referred to as Early English and embellished. What call is given to the 0.33 section?
  15. What’s a misericord?
  16. Call the 18th-century portrait painter
  17. Who was Joshua Reynolds’ cutting-edge and great rival? Which organization of 19th-century painters often used Lizzie Siddal and Jane Morris as fashions of their paintings?
  18. What call is given to the type of window formed of panels which slide up and down?
  19. Name the method of painting without delay onto (usually wet) plaster.
  20. Which British fashion clothier created the mini-skirt?
  21. Call the 20th Century motion, led through Picasso and Braque, which used geometric shapes.
  22. Which British artist’s dying words were stated to be “The sun is God”?
  23. Call this kind of timber paneling.
  24. Which metallic did Jacob Epstein on the whole use for his sculptures?
  25. Call ONE artist who has been commissioned to color our present-day queen, Queen Elizabeth II.
  26. In which English country do you partner with Barbara Hepworth, Naum Gabo, and Patrick Heron?
  27. Name the cutting-edge of Christopher Wren, famous for his wood-carving.
  28. For what are Alice Temperley and Sarah Burton known?
  29. Name the present-day British artist well-known for his diamond-encrusted cranium entitled For the affection of God.
  30. What nationality was the Tudor court docket painter Hans Holbein? commerce, industry & technological know-how?
  31. What is the British scientist Francis Crick exceptional acknowledged for?
  32. Name one of the heritage steam railway strains in England.
  33. Name the grocery store chain with the largest market proportion within the UK.
  34. Call the famous 18th Century potter and manufacturer who turned into additionally the grandfather of Charles Darwin.
  35. What call is given to the marking on a ship’s hull that denotes the safest load, named after the British M who campaigned for it?
  36. Whilst steam engines were FIRST invented, what had been they used for?
  37. Name the British scientist who studied the legal guidelines of movement and wrote Principia Mathematica.
  38. Wherein COUNTY became Britain’s cotton industry based totally inside the Nineteenth Century?
  39. What is the title of the e-book which made scientist Stephen Hawking a household call?
  40. Name the 20 th Century scientist who will seem on the new polymer £50 observe subsequent year.
  41. Give two motives for the decline of the United Kingdom coal-mining enterprise.
  42. Name the 18th/19th-century Scottish engineer who changed into nicknamed the “Colossus of Roads” due to the quantity of street and canal construction he completed.
  43. Call ONE town or city in England where vehicles are produced. charter, authorities & regulation
  44. What name became given to the notion held via King Charles I that the monarch’s strength came at once from God?
  45. The “lords spiritual” is the Church of England bishops and archbishops who have a seat inside the residence of
    Lords. How a lot of them are there?
  46. Call the house Secretary (later high Minister) who created the primary Metropolitan police pressure in 1829.
  47. What activity name is given to a Member of Parliament who has responsibility for a central authority department (eg health, or Defence)?
  48. After an invoice has been surpassed through each home of Parliament, what makes it end up-regulation?
  49. There are three Divisions of the high court docket in England. Queen’s Bench and Chancery are. name the alternative one.
  50. What is the voting age in Scotland?
  51. What is the best rank within the British military?
  52. What number of judges sit inside the supreme court docket?
  53. Call the modern Chancellor of the Exchequer.
  54. Supply ONE example of a citizen over the age of 18 who isn’t always allowed to vote in elections.
  55. Within the police force, what is the position of the officers in the C.I.D.?
  56. Provide the exact date this year when the UK officially left the EU Union. cuisine (nine)
  57. What is the main aspect of the marzipan used on Christmas cake, and as sweetmeats in Tudor instances?
  58. Supply an instance of a British meals product with PGI status (covered Geographical Indication)
  59. What is the primary aspect of black pudding?
  60. Name two kinds of cheese named after the county or area in which they’re produced.
  61. At what age is it prison to buy alcohol in a pub?
  62. What are Darjeeling, Lapsang Souchong, and Oolong?
  63. What do those symbols imply?
  64. Call the kind of fish you’ll usually be served in case you order “fish and chips”.
  65. What is the primary element of Marmite?
  66. T level (Technical A stage) qualifications are presently being introduced. At what age will students observe for them?
  67. Wherein country of the UK would you take a seat exam called “Highers”?
  68. Name two public colleges that best admit boys as students.
  69. What’s a madrasa?
  70. Inside the nineteenth century, what were Ragged colleges?
  71. Why are former pupils of Winchester college known as Wykehamists?
  72. What’s a %?
  73. Give ONE instance of goods that might be 0 rated for VAT.
  74. Name the day-by-day countrywide newspaper, published on purple paper, which in particular focuses on commercial enterprise and monetary affairs.
  75. Earlier than the decimal gadget, the Pound Sterling becomes divided into £ s d. What is represented by
  76. Which employer sets the base charge of interest for the United Kingdom?
  77. What is the present-day inflation charge (calculated for 2019)? fitness, Social services & Voluntary region
  78. Call the English physician who first identified the stream of blood.
  79. If you wanted to speak to a nurse for advice on fitness trouble, what smartphone wide variety would you dial?
  80. What kind of company is Bupa?
  81. Name the charity which presents care and economic guide to people laid low with most cancers.
  82. Name the brand new welfare scheme which replaces numerous current benefits with one single month-to-month charge.
  83. Of which leading healthcare charity is this the symbol?
  84. Name the Labour authorities minister responsible for growing the NHS in 1948.
  85. Name the English writer who is typically given a credit score for coining the word the “Wars of the Roses”.
  86. This yr marks the four-hundredth anniversary of the crushing of the Mayflower to America. call the very last port in England from which she sailed.
  87. Call the girl who led the ladies’ Social & Political Union campaigning for votes for girls.
  88. Wherein was Mary, Queen of Scots, finished?
  89. What relation become King Edward III to King Richard II?
  90. What call is given to the French Protestants who got here to this united states of America as refugees within the 17th Century?
  91. Call two of the local tribes residing in Britain when the Romans invaded within the early 1st-century ad.
  92. Name the air conflict that took place over the south coast eighty years ago this summer.
  93. Who succeeded King Edward VI as monarch on July 10, 1553?
  94. Call the top Minister whilst Queen Victoria came to the throne.
  95. Wherein towns changed into King William I crowned?
  96. Why did King Edward I erect Eleanor Crosses?
  97. Call the regulations on grain imports, delivered by Parliament in 1815.
  98. Wherein yr changed into the bank of England based?
  99. What call is given to this sort of Iron Age agreement?
  100.  Deliver one of the reasons of the Peasants’ rise up in 1381?

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