Paris is the capital of France. Located on the Seine, in the north of France, in the heart of the Ile-de-France region, also known as the “Parisian region” in French called the Paris region. Paris has a population of 2141 million (January 1, 2019). The city of Paris at its administrative limit, since 1860, was divided into: Urban Unit Paris or agglomeration, extending beyond the limits of the administrative city. Urban area Paris or metropolitan area and is one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe.
Table of Contents Monumental District and Historic Centre of Paris:
- Etymology of the city of Paris
- History of the city of betting
- Parisian geography
- Climate and season in Paris
- Architecture of the city of Paris
- Historic district and downtown Paris
- Monuments and monuments in Paris
- Cemetery in Paris
- Entertainment and Opera in Paris
- Theater / concert hall in Paris
- Paris Betting Dance Hall
- Cafes, restaurants and hotels in Paris
- Cinema Building in Paris
- Paris City Tourism
An important colony for more than two millennia, Paris is today one of the main commercial and cultural centers of the world. A mix of politics, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science and art contributes to its status as the world’s largest city. The Paris region (Ile-de-France) is the largest urban economy in Europe and the fifth largest city in the world in terms of GDP. With a budget of 500.8 billion euros ($628.9 billion), the city accounted for a quarter of France’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2006. The Paris region has 36 Fortune Global 500 companies in several business districts, including La Défense, Europe’s largest business district[ 13. ] Paris also has many international organisations such as UNESCO, the OECD, the ICC and the Paris Club.
With 30 million foreign visitors a year, Paris is the most popular tourist destination in the world, with many of the most popular tourist attractions, as well as the world’s busiest institutions and parks.
Etymology of the city of Paris
Paris in pronunciation pronunciation: ‘P’r’s in English and IPA (pa’i) in French. The Latin names of Paris are Lutetia, lutetja or Lutetia Parisiorum, in French: Lutèce, lyts, which is then cut in Paris. This name comes from the Gaia Parisii tribe, whose name may be from the Galian word Celt, which means “great kettle” but not related. Other authors consider that the name Parisii comes from the galien Celt parisio, which means “worker” or “craftsman”. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Paris has been known as Paname, Panama, in French slang (Ltspkr.pngI I am from Paname, meaning “I am from Paname”), a slang that has been popular with teenagers in recent years.
Parisians are known as Parisians in English and Parisianin French. The word Parigot (meaning “Parisian,” pronounced pa-igo, is sometimes used in French slang. Often considered degrading, Parigot has good connotations, as in Maurice Chevalier’s famous song: “He’s a guy from Menilmontant, a real p”Parigot tit. Locally, Parisian residents known as commuters mean suburban residents. Residents of the Ile-de-France region are known as Francilien. Parisians refer to the inhabitants outside the Ile-de-France as Provincials (of different provinces). The use of this designation, as far as the whole of France is concerned as a province, is sometimes considered degrading.
History of the city of betting
The first archaeological signs of permanent settlements in Paris date back to 4200 BC, the sub-tribe of the Senones Kelt, known as the merchant, had inhabited the area near the Seine since 250 BC. The Romans ruled the Paris marsh in 52 BC, with permanent settlements at the end of the same century on the left bank of the Sainte-Geneviève hill and on the island of Cité. This Gallo-Roman town was originally called Lutetia, but became Lutetia in Galisi. Widespread before the following centuries, it became a prosperous city with a forum, a palace, a pond, a temple, a theatre and an amphitheatre. The fall of the Roman Empire and the Germanic attacks of the 13th century plunged this city into the era of darkness. In 400 AD, Lutetia, which was later abandoned by its occupants, was a small garrison town on the central island with irregular fortifications. The city was given the name “Paris” at the end of the Roman occupation.
In medieval times, around the year 500, Paris was the center of Frank King, Clovis I, who built his first cathedral and monastery for his descendants, who later became the patron saint of the city, Saint Genevieve. After Clovis’s death, Frank’s kingdom split and Paris became the capital of a smaller sovereign country. During the Karolingian dynasty (nineteenth century), Paris was smaller than the feudal quarters. The nobility of Paris began to open up and hold a greater power than King Francia occidentalis. Odo, the Parisian nobleman was elected king and succeeded Charles the Fat. Because of his fame, he managed to defend Paris during the siege of the Viking, 885-886. Although the island of the City survived the Viking attack, some of the towns on the left bank were destroyed. Rather than be rebuilt there, after drying up the marshes to the north of the island, Paris began to spread to the right bank. In 987 AD, Hugh Capet, the Parisian nobleman, was elected king of France and founded the Capet dynasty that designated Paris as the capital of France.
Since 1190, King Philippe Auguste has closed Paris on both sides with a wall making the Louvre a western fort and in 1200, the University of Paris attracted students from all over Europe. During this period, the city developed vast distribution activities that still exist: the central island is endowed with governmental and religious institutions, the left bank becomes an education center with universities and colleges, while the right bank develops as a shopping centre around the central market of Les Halles.
Paris lost its position as the capital of France when it was occupied by british ally shall the Hundred Years War, but regained its title when Charles VII reclaimed the city in 1437. Although Paris became the capital again, the Kingdom was placed in the Loire Castle [citation required]. During the French war, Paris became the base of the Catholic party, leading to the massacre of Saint-Day. Bartholomew (1572). King Henry IV rebuilt the royal palace in Paris in 1594 after his conversion to Roman Catholicism (with his famous phrase: Paris is very worthy of celebrating Mass). During the Fronde, Parisians revolted and the royal family left the city (1648). King Louis XIV moved to the permanent royal palace of Versailles in 1682. A century later, Paris became the centre of the French Revolution with the attack on the Bastille in 1789 and the fall of the monarchy in 1792.
In the 19th century, during the industrial revolution, the Second Empire and the French Belle Époque brought Paris to its best development in history. Since the 1840s, rail transport has allowed many migrants to move to Paris, interested in jobs in new industries on the outskirts of the city. The city underwent a major renovation when Napoleon III and the prefect of Haussmann, who razed the whole district, widened the highway to create a network of wide roads and modern parisian neo-classical facades. The “Haussmannisasi” programme aimed to make the city more beautiful and cleaner for its inhabitants, even if it had more advantages for future revolutions or revolutions, but cavalry and rifles could be used to repress the rebellion after the siege tactics of the rebels often used during the unused Revolution still.
The smallpox epidemic of 1832 and 1849 infected the population of Paris – the 1832 epidemic itself killed 20,000 people out of 650,000 inhabitants . Paris also suffered the great impact of the siege that ended the Franco-Prussian war (1870-1871): in the chaos causing the fall of the NapoleonIII government, the Paris Commune (1871) burned many administrative centers (and archives of the city) and 20,000 Parisians died afterwards. dispute between the forces of the Commune and the Government, known as the bloody week.
Paris quickly recovered from the incident to organize a universal exhibition in the 19th century. At the 1889 World’s Fair, the Eiffel Tower was erected as a memorial to the French Revolution. It has become a “temporary” exhibition of architectural grandeur. It became the tallest tower in the world until 1930 and the city’s famous landmarks, while the 1900 World’s Fair inaugurated the first Paris Metro line. The Paris World’s Fair also positions itself on the tourism industry and as a city conducive to technology and international trade fairs.
In the 20th century, during the First World War, Paris was at the forefront of the war, thwarting the German attack on the victories of France and Great Britain at the first Battle of the Marne in 1914. In 1918-1919, victory parades and peace negotiations took place. In the interwar period, Paris was famous for its cultured and artistic society and nightlife. The city is a gathering place for painters from all over the world, from the expelling Russian composer Stravinsky to the Spanish painters Picasso and Dali to the American writer Hemingway. In June 1940, five weeks after the start of the Battle of France, Paris fell under the occupation of German troops who settled there until the liberation of the city in August 1944, two months after the Normandy attack.
The centre of Paris hit by the Second World War was not damaged because there was no strategic target for Allied bombers (the central Paris station was a terminal station; a large factory was located on the outskirts of the city) , and also because of its cultural appearance. German General von Choltitz did not destroy all The Monuments of Paris before the retreat of Germany, at the request of Adolf Hitler, who visited the city in 1940.
After the war, Paris experienced its greatest development since the end of the Belle Époque in 1914. The suburbs began to develop, with the construction of large community estates called cities and the beginning of the la Défense business district. An advanced express metro network, the RER, was built to complement the metro and serve the isolated suburbs, while the highway network was built on the outskirts of the city, centered on the ring road that circled the city.
Since the 1970s, many Parisian suburbs (particularly in the north and east) have experienced deindustrialization and prosperous cities have become a haven for immigrants and the unemployed. At the same time, the city of Paris (peripheral) and the western and southern suburbs have moved from traditional economies to high-value services and sophisticated equipment production, generating benefits for residents whose income per one of the highest in Europe. Social differences have provoked rebellion between the two regions since the mid-1980s, such as the 2005 riots, which mainly affected the northeastern periphery.
In the 21st century, several projects are underway to reduce internal social tensions and restore the Metropolitan Economy in Paris. The secretariat of state for the development of the capital’s territory was created in March 2008 by the French government. Its owner, Christian Blanc, is responsible for examining President Nicolas Sarkozy’s plan to create a metropolitan area (see Administration section below). Greater Paris (“Greater Paris”), also an extension of the metro network to monitor the population growth of Paris and its periphery, as well as various economic development projects as the engine of the metropolitan economy, such as construction world-class technology and scientific buildings and university campuses on the Saclay Plateau in the southern suburbs.
Similarly, in 2008, President Sarkozy launched an urban and international architecture competition for the future development of metropolitan Paris. Ten teams of architects, urban planners, geographers and landscape architects will give their vision of the construction of the Parisian metropolis of the 21st century after the post-Kyoto era and establish a diagnosis of perspective for Paris and its which will explain the future development of Greater Paris for the next 40 years. . The aim is not only to build an environmentally friendly metropolis, but also to integrate the Paris suburban city centre through large-scale urban planning and architectural projects. Unique.
At the same time, in order to strengthen the face of metropolitan Paris in the face of global competition, some of the tallest skyscrapers (300 m and more) have been approved since 2006 in the business district of La Défense, west of the city , and are expected to be completed in early 2010. The City of Paris has also announced its intention to build skyscrapers within the city limits by renewing the upper limit of the building for the first time since the construction of the Montparnasse Tower in the early 1970s.
Paris is located at the turn of the Seine to the north and consists of two islands, Saintle Saint-Louis and the island of Cité, which form the oldest part of the city. Overall, the city is flat and the lowest point is 35 meters above sea level. Paris has several hills, the most important being Montmartre at 130 m.
Paris, excluding the outdoor parks of Boulogne Wood and Vincennes Woods, covers an oval-shaped area of 86,928 square kilometres (33.56 square miles). The great annexation of the city against the outer territories of 1860 not only gave its modern form, but formed twelve districts clockwise (boroughs of the municipality). From the 1860 area covering an area of 78 km (30.1 mi2), the city’s boundaries extended to 86.9 km2 (34 mi2) in the 1920s. In 1929, the forest parks of the Boulogne and Vincennes woods were officially included in the city, extending its territory to 105,397 km2 (40.69 km2).
The original population size of Paris, or urban unit, extends beyond the city limits, forming an oval with urban growth along the Seine and Marne rivers from the southeast and east of the city, as well as along the Seine and Oise rivers to the northwest and north of the city. outside the main suburbs, population density is decreasing sharply; a mixture of forests and agriculture merged into the parlour network or in the surrounding towns, this suburban-crown ring line, if combined with the Paris metropolitan area, complements the Paris airways (or the urban area of Paris, a kind of metropolitan area) occupying an oval of 14,518 km2, or about 138 times the Paris region itself.
Climate and season in Paris
Paris has a sea climate and is influenced by the flow of the North Atlantic. The city therefore has an average climate with low or high temperatures. The average annual temperature is about 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit) and the annual low temperatures are about 7 degrees Celsius (45 degrees Fahrenheit). The highest temperature, recorded on July 28, 1948, was 40.4 degrees Celsius on December 10, 1879, and the lowest was -23.9 degrees Celsius (-11.0 degrees Fahrenheit). The Paris region had experienced temperatures reaching double digits, with heat waves 2003 and the cold snap of 2006.
Rain can occur at any time of the year and Paris is known for its sudden rains. The city has an average annual rainfall of 641.6 mm (25.2 inches). Snow is rather rare, sometimes appearing in the colder months of December, January or February (at the latest in April), and almost never enough to make diapers that last more than a day.
Architecture of the city of Paris
- The “modern” Paris is the result of an urban redesign of the mid-19th century. Over the centuries, the city became a maze of narrow streets and half-timbered houses, but from 1852, The vast urbanization of Baron Haussmann flattened the entire neighborhood to create a wide street with bourgeoisstone stone buildings in style neo-classical; Most of this “new” Paris is Paris that we see today. The Second Empire Plan is still in progress, while the city of Paris still imposes a modified law of “redress” (the façade of the buildings is modified according to the width of the road) for some new developments. The height of the building was also determined by the width of the road taken. The building codes of Paris have undergone various modifications since the middle of the 19th century to allow for high-rise construction. That’s why Paris is a “flat” city.
- The parisian borders that have not changed, the restricted building codes and the few empty lots have helped to create a phenomenon called “museumification”), while preserving the historical past of Paris. Current laws make it difficult to build within the city limits. large buildings and the needs that are needed for a growing population. Many institutions and economic infrastructure in Paris have been relocated or are planned to go to the suburbs. The Financial Affairs District (La Défense), the main food market (Rungis), reputable schools (École Polytechnique, HEC, ESSEC, INSEAD, etc.), world-renowned research laboratories (on Saclay or Évry), the largest stadium (Stade de France) and several ministries (Ministry of Transport) located outside Paris. The French National Archives will be transferred to the northern suburbs before 2010. The French government is meeting the needs of Greater Paris. In November 2007, discussions for Greater Paris had begun. The decision on the suburbs to be included in Greater Paris had not yet been decided. In some cases, such an expansion will not occur before the election of the City Hall of France, scheduled for spring 2008.
Historic district and downtown Paris
- The Champs-Elysées Avenue (8th arrondissement, right bank) is a 17th century park converted into a road that connects the Concorde and the Arc de Triomphe. One of the tourist attractions and main shopping streets of Paris. This road has been dubbed the most beautiful avenue in the world (“the most beautiful road in the world”).
- Avenue Montaigne (borough 8), next to the Champs-Élysées, is home to renowned brands such as Chanel, Louis Vuitton (LVMH), Dior and Givenchy.
- The Pompidou Centre, located inside the Centre Georges Pompidou, is the National Museum of Modern Art, a prestigious exhibition of art collections including Matisse, Miro, Picasso and Kandinsky as well as other collections such as the arts history, industry, literature, furniture, painting, sculpture and architecture.
- The Place de la Bastille (4th, 11th and 12th arrondissement, right bank) is a historic district, not only for Paris, but for the whole of France. Because of its historical value, this area is often used for political demonstrations, including the anti-CPE demonstration of March 2006.
- The Place de la Concorde (8th arrondissement, right bank) is located at the end of the Champs-Élysées, built under the name “Place Louis XV”, the famous site of the guillotine. The Egyptian obelisk is the “oldest monument” in Paris. On the other side of Rue Royale, there are two identical stone buildings: the eastern part, the French Ministry of the Sea, the western part, the Hôtel de Crillon. Place Vendôme is famous for its elegant and luxurious hotels (Ritz hotels and Hotel de Vendôme) and its diamond shops.Many well-known fashion designers have their own salons in this field.
- Les Halles (1st arrondissement, right bank), once a meat production market and meat centre in Paris, has been a major shopping centre around a major metro station (Châtelet-Les Halles, the largest in Europe, since the 1970s). ). The Halles were destroyed in 1971 and were replaced by Forum des Halles. The central market in Paris, the largest food market in the world, is awarded to Rungis, in the southern suburbs.
- The Grand Palais and the Petit Palais are one of the oldest districts of the city on the left bank, with education and ancient literature that lives next to the bistros, cafes and shops of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.
- The Marais (boroughs 3 and 4) is the famous district on the right bank. Culture is an open place.
- The island of The City is one of the two islands of the Seine, while the island of Saint Louis is the site of the founding of Paris. There was a palace at the western end of the island in the 10th century during the Roman nation. the end of the east is devoted to religion. A built cathedral that began with Our Lady. Subsequently, in the prefecture of the city, were the police prefecture, the courthouse, the commercial court and the Hôtel-Dieu hospital.
- The Orangerie, located in the magnificent Tuileries Museum Park, houses a collection of paintings including memorabilia by Renoir, Picasso, Matisse, Modigliani and Cézanne. and there are two Monet oval rooms that are famous as ‘nenuphar’.
- Montmartre (18th arrondissement, right bank) is a historic region of the Butte, home to the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Montmartre still has a history of painters and has many workshops and cafes of various painters.
- Montparnasse (borough 14) is a historic district on the left bank famous for its painter’s studios, music rooms and cafes. The large Montparnasse metro station – Welcome and the skyscraper of the Montparnasse Tower are located here.
- Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris is a large Gothic style located on the Rue Paris Ile de la Cité. Built from 1163 but not completed until 1361, then destroyed after the revolution, this building has undergone many changes and improvements over the years, including the addition of gargoyles, self-assembly and sculptures by architect Eugene Voillet the Duke, famous for Victor Hugo’s 1831 novel, Entitled Notre-Dame de Paris or Le Hunchback de Notre-Dame
- The Opera House (9th arrondissement, right bank) is the opera garnier district, home to the most densely populated shopping and office centres in Paris. Examples include the department stores of Printemps and Galeries Lafayette, as well as the offices of Parisian financial companies such as Crédit Lyonnais and American Express.
- The Latin Quarter (boroughs 5 and 6, left bank) is a 12th century educational centre that stretches between Maubert Square on the left bank and the Sorbonne campus. Famous for its peaceful atmosphere and its many bistros. With the establishment of higher education, such as the École Normale Supérieure, ParisTech and the jussieu university campus have made it a major educational centre in Paris, which has also contributed to its atmosphere.
- The Faubourg Saint-Honoré (8th arrondissement, right bank) is one of the main Parisian fashion districts, home to brands such as Hermès and Christian Lacroix.
- La Défense (occupying the municipalities of Courbevoie, Puteaux and Nanterre, 2.5 km west of the city limits) is an important suburb of Paris and one of the largest business centres in the world. Built at the western end of the historic paris axis, west of the Champs-Élysées avenue, La Défense consists mainly of high-rise buildings. Opened by the French government in 1958, the district has 3.5 million square meters of office space, making it the largest district in Europe built specifically for businesses. The Grand Arche de la Défense, home to part of the headquarters of the French Ministry of Transport, ends at the central esplanade around which the district was formed.
The plain of Saint-Denis (occupying the commune of Saint-Denis, Aubervilliers and Saint-Ouen, 18th arrondissement, along the ring road) is a former production area that has undergone extensive urban reform over the past 10 Years. The Stade de France is now located in this area around the place where the new business district of Landline is under construction, with two RER stations (on the RER B and D lines) and perhaps some skyscrapers. There are also several French television studios and several film studios in Plaine Saint-Denis.Le Val de Seine (which occupies the 15th arrondissement and the municipalities of Issy-les-Moulineaux and Boulogne-Billancourt in the south-west of central Paris) is the new media hub in Paris and France. , is headquartered in most French television channels (TF1 in Boulogne-Billancourt, France 2 in the 15th arrondissement, Canal – and the international channels of France 24 and Eurosport in Issy-les-Moulineaux), as well as several such as Neuf Cegetel in Boulogne-Billancourt or the Microsoft regional office for Europe, Africa and the Middle East in Issy-les-Moulineaux.
Monuments and monuments in Paris
Famous monuments in Paris include the Notre-Dame cathedral of the 20th century City, the 19th-century Eiffel Tower and the Napoleonic-era Arc de Triomphe. The Eiffel Tower is a “temporary” building designed by Gustave Eiffel for the 1889 World’s Fair, but this tower has never been demolished and is now a symbol of the beauty of Paris. Seen from various corners of the city, as well as the skyscraper of the Montparnasse tower and the Basilica of the Sacred Heart on the hill of Montmartre.
The historical line is the path of monuments, buildings and roads that stretch in a straight line from the city centre to the west: the path of the monument begins with the Louvre and continues through the Tuileries garden, the Champs-Élysées and the Arc de Triomphe located in the circle of The Star Square. Since the 1960s, this line has extended far west to the business district of La Défense, dominated by its large, square-shaped Arch; This area is home to many of the tallest skyscrapers in the Paris metropolitan area. The Musée des Invalides is a funeral for many French soldiers, including Napoleon, and the Pantheon Church is a place where many French painters, men and women, are buried. The former Prison of the Conciergerie housed several members of the Old Regime before their deaths during the French Revolution. Another symbol of the Revolution is the two Statue of Liberty located on the isgnus on the Seine and in the garden of Luxembourg. A large version of the statue was sent as a gift from France to America in 1886 and is now in New York Harbor.
The Palais Garnier was built during the Second Empire, while the former Louvre Palace is now one of the most famous museums in the world. The Sorbonne is a famous part of the University of Paris and is based in the center of the Latin Quarter. Far from Notre-Dame de Paris, there are several well-known buildings including the 13th century Chapel of the Sainte-Chapelle and the Church of the Madeleine.
Parks and gardens in Paris
Two of the oldest and most famous gardens in Paris are the Tuileries, built since the 16th century for the palaces located on the banks of the Seine, near the Louvre, and the left bank of Luxembourg, another private garden belonging to a castle built by Mary Medici in 1612. The Jardin des Plantes, created by Dr. Louis XIII, Guy de La Brosse, for his medicinal plants, is the first public garden in Paris. Some other great Parisian gardens are the formation of the Second Empire: the ancient suburbs of Monsouris, the Buttes Chaumont Park and the Parc Monceau (formerly the “Folie de Chartres” are made by the engineers Napoleon III Jean-Charles Alphand and its landscapes and appreciated of all ages. Another project under the command of Baron Haussmann was the reconstruction of the Boulogne Wood Forest Park west of Paris; The wood of Vincennes, to the east of the city, underwent the same treatment in the following years. The Parc de la Villette, built by architect Bernard Tschumi on the former slaughterhouse of Paris, the André Citroen Park, and its gardens surrounded by circles along the old circular railway of the Little Belt: Promenade Plantée.
Cemetery in Paris
The Paris cemetery was located outside the city in Roman times, but changed with the development of Catholicism and the construction of surrounding churches and cemeteries in the city center. The growth of the city immediately fills the cemetery until it is too full, creating conditions that are not always clean; explained since 1786, the contents of all the parishes of the Paris parish have been transferred to an updated section of the old stone mine on the outskirts of Paris, outside the city gate “Gate of Hell” (today Denfert-Rochereau in the 14th arrondissement). As a clearer solution than the establishment of several small suburban cemeteries, Napoleon Bonaparte agreed to build three large Parisian cemeteries outside the city limits; Opened since 1804, at the funeral of the père Lachaise cemetery founded by Napoleon in 1804, the Père Lachaise cemetery is considered the largest cemetery in the world in which famous artists, writers and composers are buried. Among others; Oscar Wilde, Maria Callas, Eugene Delacroix, Camille Pissaro, Jim Morrison and Edith Piaf. and the cemetery of Montmartre, Montparnasse, then Passy.
When Paris annexed its former suburban commune in 1860, this time included burials within the city limits. A new suburban cemetery was built at the beginning of the 20th century: the largest was the Paris cemetery of Saint-Ouen, the Parisian cemetery of Bobigny-Pantin, the Parisian cemetery of Ivry and the Parisian cemetery of Bagneux.
Entertainment and Opera in Paris
The largest opera house in Paris is the 19th-century Opera Garnier (formerly the Paris Opera) and the Bastille Modern Opera; the old one played classical ballet and opera performances, and the new one offered a mix of classical and modern repertoires.
In the mid-19th century, two operahouses were still active: the Opéra-Comique (which still exists) and Thatre Lyrique (in the modern era, changing their profile and calling itself Theatre of the City).
Theatre / concert hall in Paris
Theatre generally has a big place in Parisian culture. It still exists today, although, perhaps curiously, many of its popular actors are now stars of French television. Bobino, the Mogador Theatre and the Gaîté-Montparnasse Theatre are among the great Parisian theatres. A number of Parisian theatres have also been transformed into concert halls.
Many of the best legends of French music, such as Edith Piaf, Maurice Chevalier, Georges Brassens and Charles Aznavour, have begun to be widely known in the Paris concert hall.
The Élysées-Montmartre, reduced from its original size, is today’s concert hall. The New Morning is a Parisian club that still organizes jazz concerts, but also has experience in independent music. Lately, the Zenith hall in the Villette district of Paris and the “park-omnisports” stadium in Bercy are used as large rock concert halls.
Betting Dance Hall Paris
The guinguettes and ball concerts were the backbone of Parisian entertainment before the middle of the 20th century. Examples from the beginning to the mid-19th century are the guinguette of the Moulin de la Galette and the dance hall of the Élysées-Montmartre and Château-Rouge. This popular orchestra paved the way for Parisian accordionists whose music attracted spectators from the Apollo and Java dance halls of the Temple and Belleville. Among the remaining clubs at that time, modern discos have grown: The Palace, although now closed, is the most legendary example of Paris. Today, many Parisian associations are made in clubs such as Le Queen, L’Etoile, Le Cab, which has been chosen. Electronic music clubs such as Le Rex, Le Batofar (a boat turned into a club) or The Pulp are very popular and some of the best DJs in the world play there. Also, Parisian DJs, such as Daft Punk, Justice, Uffie, etc.
Cafes, restaurants and hotels in Paris
Coffee quickly became an integral part of French culture from the moment it first appeared, starting with the opening of the Procope Café on the left bank in 1689 and the Regency café at the Palais Royal a year later. Coffee in the gardens of several neighborhoods became popular in the 18th century and can be considered the first “terracecafé” in Paris; it will not be famous until sidewalks and boulevards appear in the mid-19th century. The café is an important stop for travel to or from the offices of many Parisians, and especially for lunch. In addition, there is also the famous Café de Flore.
The culinary reputation of Paris has its origins in the birthplace of its inhabitants. With the beginning of the 19th century, the railway and the industrial revolution caused an influx of migration that led to gastronomic differences between the different regions of France and which was maintained thanks to restaurants of “local cuisine” aimed at people from all walks of life. “Chez Jenny” is an example of an experienced restaurant in Alsatian cuisine, and “Aux Lyonnais” is another example of traditional cuisine in the region. Of course, migrations from more remote locations mean greater culinary differences. Today, in addition to the large number of colonies in North Africa and Asia, high-quality restaurants from all over the world can be found in Paris.
Hotels are another result of long journeys and tourism, especially 19th century World Exhibitions. One of the most luxurious, the Ritz Hotel has been located on Place Vendôme since 1898 and the Hotel de Crillon has opened its doors north of Place de la Concorde since 1909.
Cinema Building in Paris
Parisians want to share the same cinematic trends with the world’s cities in order to counterbalance the dominance of Hollywood entertainment films. French cinema has begun to emerge, with major directors such as Claude Lelouch, François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Claude Chabrol and Luc Besson, as well as other popular genres, such as director Claude Zidi. European and Asian films are also widespread and well received. The peculiarity of Paris is its large network of small cinemas: in one week, moviegoers have the choice between about 300 old and new films from around the world.
Many concert and dance halls were turned into cinemas when the media became famous since the 1930s. Then, many large theatres are divided into many small theatres: the largest Parisian cinema to date is the Grand Rex theatre with 2,800 seats, while the other theatres have less than 1,000 seats. There is now a multiplex season with more than 10 or 20 screens.
Paris City Tourism
Paris became the destination city for merchants, students and pilgrims, but its “tourism industry” began on a large scale with the advent of rail transport, which emerged from the organization of the French rail network in 1848. Among its first mass attractions attracting international celebrations, the 1855 World’s Fairs which published new buildings in Paris, especially the Eiffel Tower in 1889. In addition to the renewal of the capital of the Second Empire, this city has made it an attraction today.
Paris museums and monuments are top-notch attractions; tourism has encouraged cities and national governments to create new ones. The Louvre, the city’s proud museum, receives 8 million visitors a year and becomes the most visited art museum in the world. The city’s cathedral is another major attraction: Notre-Dame de Paris and the Basilica of the Sacred Heart welcome 12 million and eight million visitors. The Eiffel Tower, by far the famous Parisian monument, attracts about six million visitors a year and more than 200 million since its construction. Disneyland Resort Paris is a major tourist attraction not only for visitors to Paris, but also in Europe, with 14.5 million visitors in 2007.
The Louvre is one of the largest and most famous museums. It houses various works of art, including the Mona Lisa and the statue of the Venus de Milo. The works of Pablo Picasso and Auguste Rodin were found at the Picasso Museum and the Rodin Museum, while the Montparnasse art community owned the Montparnasse Museum. Unlike the outdoor plumbing, the Centre Georges Pompidou, also known as Beaubourg, houses the National Museum of Modern Art. Art and artifacts from the Middle Ages and Impressionist eras are preserved at the Cluny Museum and the Musée d’Orsay, former buildings decorated with The Lady with the Unicorn. The Quai Branly Museum, the newest of the Paris Museums (and the third largest), opened in June 2006 and houses works of art from Africa, Asia, Oceania and America.
Many popular Parisian establishments have attracted tourists, rather than local customers. The Lido, the dance hall of the Moulin Rouge cabaret, for example, is a restaurant-theatre with a stage, a dance show but a cabaret atmosphere. All the old social or cultural elements of the building, such as the ballrooms and gardens, are now lost. Many Parisian hotels, restaurants and nightclubs depend on tourism, with results that are not always positive for Parisian culture.
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