Palace of Versailles Paris, France, was the residence of the main kingdom of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI. Located in the department of Yvelines, in the Ile-de-France, about 20 kilometers southwest of the center of Paris.
Location Versailles, France is at coordinates 48.8048 – N 2.1203 – E. With an area of 67,000 m2 (721,182 sq ft), plus a buffer zone of 9,467 ha. The Palace and the Park of Versailles is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
History of the Palace of Versailles Paris France
Initially, a small castle with moat occupied the site until 1661, when the first works of expansion of the castle into a palace were carried out for Louis XIV. In 1682, when the palace had become quite large, the king moved the entire palace and the French government to Versailles. Some of the palace furniture at that time was made of pure silver, but in 1689 much of it was melted down to pay for the costs of the war.
The following authorities largely carried out interior renovations, to meet the demands of changing tastes, although Louis XV installed an opera house at the northern end of the north wing for the marriage of Dauphin and Marie Antoinette in 1770. The palace was also a historically important site. The Peace of Paris (1783) was signed at Versailles, the proclamation of the German Empire took place in the proud ice gallery, and the First World War ended in the palace with the Treaty of Versailles, among other events.
The palace is now a historic monument and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, especially for the ceremonial ice hall, the royal gem opera house and the royal apartments; for a more intimate royal residence, Grand Trianon and Petit Trianon are located in the park; Small Rural Hamlet (Hameau) created for Marie Antoinette; and the vast garden of Versailles with water fountains, canals and geometric flower beds, arranged by André le Nôtre. The palace was stripped of all its furniture after the French Revolution, but many rooms have been restored and much of the palace space has been restored.
In 2017, the Palace of Versailles welcomed 7700,000 visitors, making it the most visited monument in the Ile-de-France region, just behind the Louvre and in front of the Eiffel Tower.
The site of the palace was first occupied by a small village and a church, surrounded by forests filled with abundant play. It belongs to the Gondi family and the monk Saint Julian. King Henry IV went hunting there in 1589 and returned in 1604 and 1609, staying at the village inn. His son, the future of Louis XIII, came with his own hunting trip in 1607. After becoming king in 1610, Louis XIII returned to the village, bought land and, in 1623-24, built a simple two-level hunting lodge on the present site of the marble courtyard. He stayed there in November 1630 at an event known as dupes Day, when the enemies of the king’s prime minister, Cardinal Richelieu, assisted by the king’s mother, Marie de Medici, tried to take power. The king defeated the plan and sent his mother into exile.
After this event, Louis XIII decided to transform his hunting lodge in Versailles into a castle. The king bought the nearby Gondi family and, in 1631-1634, asked architect Philibert Le Roy to replace the hunting lodge with a brick and stone castle with a classic Doric-style pilaster and a slate roof, surrounding the courtyard of the original hunting lodge. The gardens and parks were also enlarged, arranged by Jacques Boyceau and his nephew, Jacques de Menours (1591-1637), and have practically reached the size they have today.
Louis XIV Palace of Versailles Paris
Louis XIV first visited the palace on a hunting trip in 1651 at the age of twelve, but only returned occasionally until his marriage to Maria Theresa of Spain in 1660 and the death of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661, after which he suddenly became passionate about the site. He decided to rebuild, beautify and enlarge the castle and make it a complex place of rest and entertainment on a large scale.
The first phase of expansion (circa 1661-1678) was designed and supervised by architect Louis Le Vau. At first, he added two wings to the front yard, one for the servants’ quarters and the kitchen, the other for the stables. In 1668, he added three new stone wings, called envelopes, to the north, south and west (garden side) of the original castle. These buildings have almost flat roofs covered with tin. The king also commissioned landscape designer André Le Nôtre to create the most beautiful gardens in Europe, adorned with fountains, statues, sinks, canals, geometric flower beds and groves of trees. He also added two Italian-style caves and large oranges to house fruit trees, as well as a zoo with a central pavilion for exotic animals. After the death of the Vau in 1670, the work was resumed and completed by his assistant François d’Orbay.
The main floor (above the ground floor) of the new palace contains two symmetrical apartment complexes, one for the king and the other for the queen, overlooking the garden. The two apartments are separated by a marble terrace, overlooking the garden, with a fountain in the middle. Each set of apartments is connected to the ground floor by a ceremonial staircase, and each has seven bedrooms, arranged in a row; vestibule, guard room, vestibule, hall, large closet or office; small room and small closet. On the ground floor below raja’s apartment is another apartment, of the same size, designed for his personal life and decorated on the theme of Apollo, the sun’s god, his personal emblem. Beneath the Queen’s apartment is the Grand Dauphin apartment, heir to the throne.
Interior decoration entrusted to Charles Le Brun. Le Brun supervised the work of a large group of sculptors and painters, called Little Academies, who made and painted decorated walls and ceilings. In the 1670s and 1680s, 10 million pounds of solid silver furniture was commissioned for design by Le Brun, including a bathtub for Louis XIV orange trees, an 8-foot sculpture throne and a silver fence in the Mercury Salon. These items were thawed in 1689 to contribute to the cost of the Battle of the Nine Years’ War.
The Brown also oversees the design and installation of countless statues in the park. The grand staircase leading to the king’s apartment was immediately redecorated almost as soon as it was equipped with colorful marble plates and trophies of weapons, carpets and balconies, so that the members of the court could observe the king’s procession.
In 1670, Le Vau added a new pavilion to the northwest of the castle, called Trianon, for the king’s relaxation in the summer heat. It is surrounded by flower beds and fully decorated with blue and white porcelain, imitating the Chinese style.
Expansion of the Palace of Versailles Paris (1678-1715)
The king spent more and more his days at Versailles, and the government, the court and the servants of the palace, from six to seven thousand people, gathered in the building. The king ordered a new expansion, entrusted to the young architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart.
Hadouin-Mansart has added two new large wings on either side of the original Royal Courtyard. It also replaced the large terrace of the Vau, overlooking the park to the west, with what has become the hall of the most famous palace, the Hall of Mirrors. Mansart also built Small Stables and Large Stables in front of the Place d’Armes, on the east side of the castle. The king hopes for a quiet place to relax away from the judicial ceremony. In 1687, Hardouin-Mansart began the Grand Trianon, or Marble Trianon (Trianon marble), replacing Le Vau 1668 Trianon de Porcelaine in the northern part of the park. In 1682, Louis XIV was able to proclaim Versailles as his main residence and center of government and was able to provide rooms in the palace to almost all members of the palace.
After the death of Maria Theresa of Spain in 1683, Louis XIV undertook an extension and renovation of the royal apartment in the original part of the palace, inside the former hunting lodge built by his father. He commissioned Mansart to begin construction of the Royal Chapel of Versailles, which dominated the entire palace. Hardouin-Mansart died in 1708 and the chapel was completed by his assistant Robert de Cotte in 1710.
Louis XV Palace of Versailles Paris
Louis XIV died in 1715, and the new viceroy, Louis XV, was only five years old, and his government was temporarily moved from Versailles to Paris during the reign of Philip II, Duke of Orleans. In 1722, when the king became an adult, he moved his residence and government to Versailles, where they remained until the French Revolution in 1789. Louis XV remained faithful to his great-grandfather’s original plans and made several modifications outside Versailles. His main contribution was the construction of the Salon d’Hercules, which connected the main building of the Palace to the north wing and the chapel (1724-1736); and the Royal Opera Theatre, designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, and built between 1769 and 1770. The new theatre was completed in time for the Dauphin wedding celebrations, the future of Louis XVI and Archduchess Marie Antoinette of Austria. He also made numerous additions and modifications to the royal apartment, where he, the queen, his daughter and his heir lived. In 1738, Louis XV redesigned the king’s small apartment on the north side of the Marble Court, which was originally the entrance to the castle’s former palace. He secretly provided accommodation in another part of the palace for his famous mistress, Madame de Pompadour and later Madame du Barry.
The extension of the king’s small apartment requires the dismantling of the ambassador’s ladder, one of the most admired features of the palace of Louis XIV, who left the palace without the entrance of a grand staircase. The following year, Louis XV ordered the demolition of the north wing opposite the Royal Court, which was badly damaged. He instructed Gabriel to rebuild it in a more neoclassical style. The new wing was completed in 1780.
Louis XVI and the Palace of Versailles Paris during the Revolution
Louis XVI was hampered by the royal financial situation which made it worse to make major changes to the palace, so he mainly focused on repairing the royal apartments. Louis XVI gave Marie Antoinette Petit Trianon in 1774. The Queen made major changes inside and added a theatre, the Queen’s Theatre.
He also completely changed the arboretum planted during the reign of Louis XV into what became known as the Queen’s Hamlet. It is a beautiful collection of buildings that imitates a village in rural France, where the queen and her servants play the role of farmers. The Queen was at Petit Trianon in July 1789 when she first learned of the beginning of the French Revolution.
In 1783, the Palace was the site of the signing of three Paris peace accords (1783), in which Britain recognized the independence of the United States.
the invasion of the Bastille in Paris on July 14, 1789. while they were at the palace, and remained isolated there when the revolution in Paris spread. The increased anger in Paris provoked the women’s parade at Versailles on October 5, 1789. A crowd of several thousand men and women, protesting against the high prices and scarcity of bread, marched from the Paris market to Versailles. They took weapons from the city’s armory, surrounded the palace and forced the king and the royal family and members of the National Assembly to return with them to Paris the next day.
As soon as the royal family left, the Palace was closed, waiting for their return – but in reality, the monarchy would never return to Versailles. In 1792, the Convention, a new revolutionary government, ordered the transfer of all paintings and sculptures from the Palace to the Louvre. In 1793, the Convention declared the abolition of the monarchy and ordered the auction of all royal property of the palace. The auction took place between August 25, 1793 and August 11, 1794. Furniture and art objects from the palace, including furniture, mirrors, bathrooms and kitchen utensils, were sold in seventeen thousand lots. All lily flowers and royal emblems of the building were in kiosks or carved. Empty buildings have been converted into warehouses of furniture, art and libraries confiscated from the nobility. A large empty apartment was opened for a visit that began in 1793, and a small museum of paintings and a school of French art opened in several empty rooms.
When Napoleon Bonaparte became Emperor of France in 1804, he considered making Versailles his place of residence, but abandoned the idea because of the renovation costs. Before marrying Marie-Louise in 1810, he restored the Grand Trianon and renewed it as a spring residence for himself and his family, with the style of furniture we see today.
In 1815, with the final fall of Napoleon, Louis XVIII, the younger brother of Louis XVI, became king and considered returning the royal residence to Versailles, where he was born. He ordered the restoration of the royal apartment, but the fees and fees were too high. He and his successor Charles X lived in Versailles.
The French Revolution of 1830 brought to power a new king, Louis-Philippe, and new ambitions for Versailles. He did not live in Versailles, but began the creation of the Museum of The History of France, dedicated to “all the glory of France”, located in the south wing of the castle, which had been used to contain several members of the royal family. The museum began in 1833 and was inaugurated on June 30, 1837. Its most famous room is the Battle Hall, which is located at most lengths on the second floor.  Louis Philippe had destroyed the south wing of The Royal Court and was rebuilt to match Gabriel’s opposite wing of 1780, which gave greater uniformity to the main entrance.  The museum project was largely halted when Louis Philippe was overthrown in 1848, although paintings of French heroes and great battles remained in the south wing.
Emperor Napoleon III occasionally used the palace as a stage for large ceremonies. One of the most luxurious was the banquet he hosted for Queen Victoria at the Royal Opera House in Versailles on August 25, 1855.
During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871, the palace was occupied by the victorious staff of the German army. Parts of the castle, including the gallery of mirrors, have been converted into military hospitals. The formation of the German Empire, combining Prussia and the surrounding German states under William I, was officially proclaimed at the Hall of Mirrors on January 18, 1871. Germany remained at the Palace until the truce was signed in March 1871. That month, the government of the French Republic The three new ones, who had left Paris during the war of Tours and Bordeaux, moved to the Palais. The National Assembly held a meeting at the Opera House.
The revolt of the Paris Commune in March 1871 prevented the French government, under Adolphe Thiers, from immediately returning to Paris. The military operations that abolished the Commune at the end of May were directed from Versailles and the prisoners of the Commune marched there and were tried by a military court. In 1875, a second parliamentary body, the French Senate, was formed and held a meeting for the election of the President of the Republic in a new hall created in 1876 in the south wing of the palace. The French Senate continues to meet at the Palace on special occasions, such as an amendment to the French Constitution.
Enter the 20th century Palace of Versailles Paris
The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw the beginning of efforts to restore the palace, led for the first time by Pierre de Nolhac, poet and scholar and first curator, who began his work in 1892. Conservation and restoration have been disrupted by two world wars, but continues to this day.
The palace returned to the world stage in June 1919, when the Treaty of Versailles, which officially ended the First World War, was signed at the Hall of Mirrors. Between 1925 and 1928, American philanthropist and multi-millionaire John D. Rockefeller donated $2166,000, or about $30 million today, to restore and renovate the palace.
More work took place after the Second World War, with the restoration of the Royal Opera House in Versailles. The theatre reopened in 1957, in the presence of Queen Elizabeth II of England. In 1978, parts of the Palace were severely damaged by the bombing of Breton terrorists.
The restoration initiative launched by the Fifth Republic was probably more expensive than the expenditure of the palace under the Old Regime. From the 1950s, when the Versailles Museum was headed by Gerald van der Kemp, the aim was to restore the palace to its state – or as close as possible – in 1789 when the royal family left the palace. Initial projects included roof repairs over the ice gallery; the advertising campaign drew international attention to the sufferings of post-war Versailles and raised a lot of foreign money, including grants from the Rockefeller Foundation. At the same time, in the Soviet Union (Russia since 26 December 1991), the restoration of the Pavlovsk Palace located 25 kilometres from the centre of Leningrad – now St. Petersburg – attracted the attention of the French Ministry of Culture, including the curator Versailles. After the war, when the Soviet authorities restored the palace, which had been destroyed by the withdrawal of the Nazis, they recreated silk cloths using preserved 18th-century remains.
When these results and the high quality obtained were brought to the attention of the French Ministry of Culture, he revived the weaving techniques of the eighteenth century to reproduce the silk used in the decoration of Versailles. Two of the greatest achievements of this initiative are now found in the wall hangings used for the restoration of the Queen’s room in the Queen’s grand apartment and the king’s room in the king’s apartment. Although the design used for the king’s room is, in fact, original design to decorate the Queen’s room, it is nevertheless a major achievement in the ongoing restoration at Versailles. In addition, this project, which lasted more than seven years, required the realization of several hundred kilograms of silver and gold. One of the most expensive efforts for museums and the Fifth Republic of France is to buy back as much original furniture as possible. As a result, because furniture of royal origin – and in particular furniture made for Versailles – is a highly sought-after commodity on the international market, the museum has spent a lot of money to take much of the original furniture from the palace.
In the 21st century Palace of Versailles Paris
In 2003, a new restoration initiative – the “Grand Versailles” project – began, which began with the replanting of gardens, which had lost more than 10,000 trees during Hurricane Lothar on December 26, 1999. Part of the initiative, the restoration of the hall of mirrors, completed in 2006.  Another major project was the continuation of the behind-the-scenes restoration of the Royal Opera House in Versailles, which was completed on April 9, 1957.
Ownership and management of Palace of Versailles Paris
The Palace of Versailles belongs to the French state. The official title is the establishment of the national castle, the museum and the plantation of Versailles. Since 1995, it has been managed as a public body, with independent administration and management overseen by the French Ministry of Culture. The current president of the Public Institutions Organization is Catherine Pégard.
The Palace of Versailles offers a visual history of French architecture from the 17th century to the end of the 18th century. It began with the original castle, with bricks and stones and a sloping Louis XIII-style attic used by architect Philibert Le Roy. It later became more majestic and monumental, with the addition of pillars and flat roofs of the new royal apartment in the French or classic Louis XIV style, as designed by Louis Le Vau and later Jules Hardouin-Mansart. It ended with the neoclassical style Louis XVI more elegant and elegant than the Petit Trianon, completed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in 1768.
The palace was largely completed by the death of Louis XIV in 1715. The east-facing palace has a U-shaped layout, with a logical and symmetrical body advancing the secondary wing that ends with the Dufour Pavilion to the south and the Gabriel Pavilion to the north. , creating a vast courtyard known as the Royal Court. Flanking the royal court, two very large asymmetrical wings produce a 402-metre (1,319-foot) long façade.  With a roof of approximately 10 million square feet, the palace has 2,143 windows, 1,252 fireplaces and 67 staircases.
The original façade of the castle of Louis XIII is preserved in front of the entrance. Built of red bricks and cut stone trims, the U-shaped layout surrounds a black and white marble courtyard. In the centre, a 3-storey forearm facing eight red marble pillars supporting a gold-plated wrought iron balcony was surmounted by a triangular tin sculpture surrounding a large clock, whose hand was stopped at the time of Louis XIV’s death. The façade of the façade is equipped with poles, wrought iron balconies painted and gilded and dozens of stone tables decorated with consoles housing marble statues of the Roman emperors. Above the slate roof are elaborate roof windows and gold-plated roof plates added by Hardouin-Mansart in 1679-1681.
Inspired by the architecture of the old Italian villas, but executed in the classical French style, the park’s façade and wings are wrapped in white-cut stone called envelope in 1668-1671 by Le Vau and modified by Hardouin-Mansart in 1678-1679. . The exterior has a curved and rusty ground floor, supporting the ground floor with round-headed windows divided by reliefs and pilasters or columns. The attic floor has square windows and pilasters and is crowned by a carved trophy ledge and a fire pot simulated by a flat roof.
Royal Apartments Palace of Versailles Paris
The main floor plan in the middle of the palace (circa 1742), which shows a large apartment of the king in dark blue, an apartment of the king in medium blue, a small apartment of the king in light blue, a large apartment of the queen in yellow, and the small red apartment of the queen.
The construction from 1668 to 1671 of the Vau envelope around the exterior of the red brick and white stone Louis XIII added state apartments for kings and queens. The additions were known at that time as the new castle. Luxury apartments (Grand Apartments, also known as country apartments) include the King’s luxury apartments and the Queen’s luxury apartments. They occupy the main or main floor of the new castle, with three bedrooms in each apartment facing the park to the west and four bedrooms facing the park to the north and south. The king’s private apartment (the king’s and the small apartment’s apartment) and the queen’s apartment (the queen’s small apartment) remain in the old castle. The design of the state apartments by Le Vau follows the Italian model of the time, including the placement of the apartments on the ground floor (piano nobile, the next floor rising from the ground), a convention borrowed by the architects to the design of the Italian palace.
The King’s Country Apartment consists of a seven-piece series, each dedicated to one of the known planets and their associated titular Roman gods. The queen’s apartment forms a line parallel to the king’s grandma’s apartment. After the addition of the Ice Gallery (1678-1684), the king’s apartment was reduced to five rooms (until the reign of Louis XV, when two more rooms were added) and the queen to four.
The Queen’s apartment serves as the residence of three French queens – Marie-Thérèse of Austria, wife of Louis XIV, Marie Leczinska, wife of Louis XV, and Marie Antoinette, wife of Louis XVI. In addition, the great-grandson Louis XIV, Princess Marie-Adelaide of Savoy, Duchess of Burgundy, wife of Petit Dauphin, occupied these rooms from 1697 (the year of his marriage) until his death in 1712.
Ambassador of the stairs Palace of Versailles Paris
Before entering King’s State Apartments, you must climb the ambassador’s ladder – an appropriate entrance as its splendor corresponds to the splendor of the apartment. The Ambassador Staircase was built in 1674 but was completed in 1680. Although it was designed by the architect Louis Le Vau, this staircase was built by François d’Orbay and mainly painted by Charles Le Brun. Destroyed in 1752, the staircase was the entrance to the king’s apartment and was the grand official entrance to the castle, specially designed to impress and impress foreign officials. At the time of its creation, Versailles was in transition to reflect the power and authority of the government rather than a private house for the crown. The basic function of the staircase and the surrounding details reinforce this evolution in Versailles.
The staircase combines the allegory of the four parts of the world in a vault and the representation of a crowd of foreign visitors on the wall. The stairs are illuminated from above with lights from the sky – qualities quite advanced for 17th century architecture and considered to have played a symbolic role in relation to the heroic scenes of the king depicted by Le Brun. In addition, it is known to include Thalia (comedy muse), Melpomene, Calliope and Apollo (symbol of Louis XIV) and twelve months of the year. References to the wider world, such as the representation of twelve months in a year and four parts of the world, return to the mentality of Louis XIV of Versailles which symbolizes the supreme and divine power which, in turn, reflects the desires that Louis XIV wanted from his reign.
The King’s State Apartment Palace of Versailles Paris
The construction of the ice gallery between 1678 and 1686 coincided with a major change in the state apartment. They were originally intended to be his residence, but the king turned it into a gallery for his best paintings and places for many receptions for courtiers. During the All Saints’ season from November to Easter, it usually takes place three times a week, from six to ten nights, with a variety of entertainment.
It was originally a chapel. It was rebuilt from 1712 as a work for the painting of Meals at home of Simon the Farisi by Paolo Veronese, which was a gift for Louis XIV of the Republic of Venice in 1664. The painting of the ceiling, The Apotheosis of Hercules, by François Lemoyne, was completed in 1712, and gave the name of the room.
The Salon of Plenty
The Salon de l’Abondance is the vestibule of the Curios Cabinet (now the Games Room), which presents a collection of rare jewelry and rare objects by Louis XIV. Some of the objects in the collection are depicted in René-Antoine Houasse Abondance et liberality (1683), which is located on the ceiling above the door on the other side of the window.
The Venus Salon
This lounge is used to serve snacks at evening parties. The main room of this room is a statue the size of Louis XIV by Jean Warin in the costume of a Roman emperor. On the ceiling in a gold-plated oval frame is another painting of Houasse, Venus submits God and Strength (1672-1681). The paintings and sculptures of Trumpe eye to ceiling represent mythological themes.
The Mercury Show
The Salon de Mercure was the original bedroom when Louis XIV officially transferred the palace and the government to the palace in 1682. The bed was a replica of the original work commissioned by King Louis-Philippe in the 19th century when he turned the palace into a museum. . A ceiling painting by the Flemish artist Jean Baptiste de Champaigne depicts the god Mercury in his train, drawn by a rooster, and Alexander the Great and Ptolemy are surrounded by scholars and philosophers. The automatic clock was made for the king by the royal watchmaker Antoine Morand in 1706. When the clock struck, figures of Louis XIV and fame descended from the clouds.
The March Show
The Mars Salon was used by the Royal Guards until 1782 and was decorated on the military theme with helmets and trophies. It was transformed into a concert hall between 1684 and 1750, with galleries for musicians on both sides. Portraits of Louis XV and his queen, Marie Leszczinska, by the Flemish artist Carle Van Loo decorate the room today.
The Apollo Show
The Apollo Lounge is the royal throne room under Louis XIV and is a place of formal hearings. An eight-foot-tall silver throne was melted down in 1689 to help pay for costly war costs, and was replaced by a simpler gold-plated wooden throne. The central ceiling painting, by Charles de la Fosse, depicts the Apollo Sun Carriage, the king’s favourite symbol, designed by four horses and surrounded by four seasons.
Diana’s living room is used by Louis XIV as a pool room and has galleries where palace members can watch him play. The decorations of the walls and ceilings represent scenes from the life of the goddess Diane. The statue of Louis XIV by Bernini, made during the visit of the famous sculptor to France in 1665, is on display.
King Private Apartment
The king’s apartment is the heart of the castle; they are located in the same place as the room of Louis XIII, the creator of the castle, on the first floor (American style on the second floor). They were set aside for the personal use of Louis XIV in 1683. He and his successors Louis XV and Louis XVI used these rooms for official events, such as ceremonial levers (“wake up”) and coupons (“going to sleep”) of the king, attended by the palace crowd.
The king’s apartment is accessible from the ice gallery from the vestibule of the Eye of Beef, in front of the guard room and the Grand Couvert, the ceremonial room where Louis XIV often dined, sitting alone at a table in front of the fireplace. His spoon, fork and knife were brought to him in a gold box. Courtiers can watch when he eats.
The king’s room was originally the State Drawing Room and was used by Queen Maria Theresa, but after his death in 1701, Louis XIV took over to be used as his own room and died there on September 1, 1715. Louis XV and Louis XVI continued to use the room for their official awakening and go to bed. On October 6, 1789, from the balcony of this hall, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, joining the Marquis de Lafayette, watched the hostile crowd in the courtyard, shortly before the king was forced to return to Paris.
The king’s bed was placed under a relief carved by Nicolas Coustou entitled France looking at the sleeping king. The décor includes several paintings mounted on the panel, including Antony Van Dyck’s self-portrait.
The Queen’s private apartment
The Queen’s small apartment is a series of rooms for the Queen’s personal use. Initially designed for the use of Marie-Thérèse, wife of Louis XIV, the rooms were then modified to be used by Marie Leszczyska and finally for Marie Antoinette. The Queen’s apartments and the king’s apartments are arranged in the same design, each suite having seven bedrooms. Both suites have ceilings painted with scenes from mythology; the king’s ceiling displays a male figure, the queen displays a woman.
The Grand Gallery is a highly decorated set of three reception rooms, dedicated to the celebration of the political and military success of Louis XIV, and used for important ceremonies, celebrations and receptions.
The War Show
The War Show commemorates Louis XIV’s triumphant campaign against the Dutch, which ended in 1678. The centerpiece is a huge sculpture of Louis XIV, on horseback, crossing the Rhine in 1672, created by Antoine Coysevox. Beneath the chimney is a painting by Clio, the muse of history, which records the king’s exploitation.
The Hall of Mirrors is perhaps the most famous piece of the Palace of Versailles. There is a roof terrace overlooking the garden that used to link the king’s and queen’s apartment. Construction of the hall began in 1678 and was completed in 1689. The gallery measures more than 70 meters (230 feet) and is lined with 17 large curved mirrors, designed to match and reflect the opposite windows overlooking the park. Charles Le Brun painted thirty scenes from the beginning of Louis XIV’s reign to the ceiling. The central part is a painting of the king entitled “The King Governing Alone”. This shows Louis XIV, facing the power of Europe, diverted from his pleasure of receiving the crown of eternity of Glory, with the encouragement of Mars.
The room was originally equipped with solid silver furniture designed by Le Brun, but it was melted down in 1689 to help pay the war costs. The king retained the silver throne, usually located in the living room of Apollo, which was brought to the ice gallery for official ceremonies, such as welcoming foreign ambassadors, including a delegation from the King of Siam in 1686. It has also been used for large events, such as full dresses and masked balls. . Candles illuminated the great golden warriors that lined the room. The one on display today was made in 1770 for the wedding of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, based on a previously printed silver version made by LeBrun fondue. Twenty-four crystal lamps are suspended only for special occasions. The courtiers gather in the room to watch the king walk from his apartment to the chapel, and sometimes take the opportunity to make requests to him.
The Peace Fair
The peace fair is decorated to illustrate France’s role as an arbitrator and peacemaker under Louis XV. François Lemoyne’s ceiling fresco, Louis XV, which offers an olive branch to Europe, illustrates this theme. During the reign of Louis XV, the queen, Marie Leszczyska, used this lounge as a music hall, organizing concerts of secular and religious music every Sunday.
The chapel is the last building in Versailles to be completed during the reign of Louis XIV. It was ordained in 1710 and is dedicated to Louis IX of France, the ancestor and patron of the king. Construction was started by Hardouin-Mansart in 1699, and was completed by de Corte. Daily services, wedding ceremonies and baptisms were held in this chapel until 1789. Like other royal chapels, this chapel has two levels: the king and the family worship at the Royal Gallery on the upper level, while the servants of the court stood on the ground floor.
The ceiling paintings show scenes depicting three trinities. In the center is the Glory of the Father announcing the coming of The Messiah of Antoine Coypel, on the altar is the Resurrection of Christ, and above the royal gallery is the Holy Spirit descending to the Virgin and the Apostles. The corridors and vestibules connecting the chapel and the state apartments include later works of art, commissioned by Louis XV, intended to illustrate the relationship between the Deity and the King: the statue of Glory holds the Louis XV Medal, by Antoine Vassé; and Royal Magnanimity by Jacques Bousseau.
The Royal Chapel was renovated for 767 days. The work is scheduled to be completed in the summer of 2020.
Royal Opera House
The Royal Opera House of Versailles was originally commissioned by Louis XIV in 1682 and will be built at the tip of the north wing with drawings by Mansart and Vigarani. However, due to the cost of the king’s continental war, the project was excluded.
The idea was revived by Louis XV with a new design by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in 1748, but this was also temporarily removed. This project was revived and advanced at the planned celebration of the wedding of Dauphin, the future of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. For economy and speed, the new opera house was built almost entirely of wood, which also provided very high quality acoustics. The wood was painted to resemble marble, and the ceiling was decorated with paintings by Apollo, the god of art, preparing the crown of famous artists, by Louis Jean-Jacques Durameau. Sculptor Augustin Pajou added sculptures and reliefs to complete the décor. The new opera house was inaugurated on May 16, 1770, as part of a royal wedding celebration.
In October 1789, at the beginning of the French Revolution, the last supper of the royal guards was organized by the king at the opera, before his departure for Paris. After the Franco-German War of 1871 and the Paris Commune until 1875, the French National Assembly met at the opera house, until the proclamation of the Third French Republic and the return of the government to Paris.
Museum of French History
Shortly after becoming king in 1830, Louis Philippe I decided to transform the palace, empty of furniture and in poor condition, into a museum dedicated to “All the glory of France”, with paintings and sculptures depicting victories and French heroes that celebrate.
The walls of the apartments of courtiers and members of the lower royal family on the first floor (second floor Of American style) have been demolished and transformed into a series of several large galleries: Coronation Room, which presents famous paintings of the coronation celebrations. Napoleon I by Jacques-Louis David; Battle Hall; commemorate France’s victory with large-scale paintings; and the 1830 Hall, which celebrated the arrival of Louis-Philippe himself in power during the French Revolution of 1830. Several paintings have been brought from the Louvre, including works tracing events in the history of France by Philippe de Champaigne, Pierre Mignard, Laurent de La Hyre, Charles Le Brun, Adam Frans van der Meulen, Nicolas de Largillière, Hyacinthe Rigaud, Jean-Antoine Houdon , Jean-Marc Nattier, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, Hubert Robert, Thomas Lawrence, Jacques-Louis. Others were commissioned specifically for the museum by prominent artists in the early 19th century, including Eugene Delacroix, who painted Saint Louis during France’s victory over England at the Battle of Taillebourg in 1242. Other featured painters included Horace Vernet and François Gérard. A monumental painting by Vernet depicting Louis Philippe himself, with his sons, posing in front of the Palace door.
48 put an end to his great plans for the museum, but the Battle Gallery was still what it was and was visited by many visitors in the royal apartments and large salons. Another set of rooms on the first floor has been transformed into a gallery in Louis XIV and his palace, displaying furniture, paintings and sculptures. In recent years, eleven rooms on the ground floor between the Chapel and the Opera House have been transformed into the history of the palace, with a look and an audiovisual model.
Gardens and fountains
André Le Nôtre began changing the gardens and gardens of Versailles in the early 1660s. These are the best examples of French garden or French gardens. They were originally designed to be seen from the terrace on the west side of the palace, and to create a great perspective that reached the horizon, illustrating the king’s complete domination over nature.
Go Water and Parterre and the Fountain of Latone
The closest feature to the palace are the two water separators, a large swimming pool that reflects the façade of the palace. It is decorated with small sculptures, representing the French river, which are placed in such a way as not to disturb the reflections in the water. Beneath the stairs of the Parterre d’Eau is the Latone Fountain, created in 1670, illustrating the story of Latone from Ovid’s Metamorphoses.
According to the story, when the peasants of Lycia insulted Latone, the mother of Apollo and Diane, the god of Jupiter turned farmers into frogs. The fountain was started in 1670 by Le Nôtre, then enlarged and modified by Hardouin-Mansart in 1686. The main group of Latone sculptures with Diane and Apollo was made between 1668-1670 by the sculptor Gaspard Marsy and originally placed on a simple stone foundation on the middle rock of the basin. Gaspard’s brother, Balthazard, designed six half-human, half-frog figures to decorate the water jets around the statue of Latone, with 24 tin frogs placed on the grass surrounding the perimeter of the fountain.
Hardouin-Mansart designed a fountain that was much larger than the four oval levels that formed the pyramid, at the top of which was arranged by a statue of Gaspard Marsy and perfected with semi-human figures of Balthazard Marsy and various gold-plated frogs and lizards carved by Claude Bertin. The four levels are covered with 230 pieces of marble, composed of white and grey Cararra, Campan greenish marble and red Languedoc marble.
Air Mancur Latona underwent major renovations between 2012 and 2015, which required the removal of statues, marble fittings and peddant pipelines for off-site restoration. By the time the project began in 2012, the foundations of the main basin had seriously weakened and were no longer watertight, threatening the fountain above. The marble surface and statues are covered by years of accumulated dust, obscuring the bright colors of the marble and the gilded lights as the originals. The part surrounding the fountain, which is furnished with lawns and flowers to taste in the 19th century, is also completely redesigned. A formal layer of grass and boxwood bounded by gravel to form an arabesque motif was made, in accordance with the original design of Le Nôtre.
The Apollo Railway Fountain Tank and the Grand Canal
The perspective of the Grand Palais continues from the South Latona Fountain along the grassy path, Green Carpet or the green carpet, to the Apollo Train Railway Basin. Apollo, the god of the sun, is the symbol of Louis XIV, displayed in many palace decorations. The train that rises from the water symbolizes the rising sun. It was designed by Le Brun and made by the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Tuby at the Gobelin factory between 1668 and 1670, thrown in lead and then gilded. Outside the fountain, the Grand Canal stretches for 1,800 metres at the southern end of the park.
North Parterre, Dragon Basin and Neptune Basin
Another formal park group is located on the north side of the waterbed. These include two groves or clumps: the Forest of the Three Fountains, the Grove of the Arches de Triomphe, and this north, three main fountains, the Pyramid Fountain, the Fountain of the Dragon and the Fountain of Neptune. The fountains in this area all have a maritime or aquatic theme; The pyramidal fountain is decorated with newts, mermaids, dolphins and nymphs. The Dragon Fountain is one of the oldest in Versailles and has the highest jet of water, twenty-seven meters. Actually not a dragon, but pythons, mythical snakes killed by Apollo. The Neptune Fountain was originally only decorated with a large circle like lead that drains water; Louis XV added statues of Neptune, Triton and other marine gods.
South Parterre and Orangery Edit
South Parterre is located under the window of the Queen’s apartment and on the roof of the Orangery. It was decorated with canned trees and flowers in Arabic motifs. The Orangery is located below the main terrace of the palace, a resting place for the northern and southern starters. Three large retaining walls separate the South Parterre from the low floor of the Orangery. An arch-shaped gallery with 16-foot walls built on three retaining walls. The longest is the south-facing main gallery, with a height of more than 500 feet (150 meters) from end to end and 13 feet (13 meters) high from floor to ceiling. The appropriate steps are called Stairs of the Hundred Steps (so named because each staircase has 100 steps) descending from the top of the east and west galleries to reach the Orangery level.
The thickness of the walls combined with a south exposure and double-glazed windows are designed according to the theory of Jean Baptiste de la Quintinie, head gardener of the King’s Garden, to provide a snow-free environment all year round for tenders. subtropical plants, especially orange trees, are appreciated by Louis XIV.  More than a thousand orange trees, palms, pink laurels, pomegranates and olive trees, as well as other soft plants, were placed inside the orangery walls during the winter; they were taken to party headquarters from mid-May to mid-October.
Fountains and water shortages
A 1722 painting of Machine de Marly on the Seine, with the aqueduct of Louveciennes on a hill. The water supply of the Fountain of Versailles is a big problem for the royal government. The site of the palace itself is 490 feet above sea level, with the nearest body of water capable of feeding gardens and becoming the Seine, 6 miles to the north. This posed a frightening problem for Louis XIV’s engineers on how to transport water upstream over such a long distance.
In 1681, construction began at the Marly Machine in Bougival; The machine consists of 14 paddle wheels powered by the Seine current. 259 pumps carry water to the Louveciennes aqueduct at a height of 530 feet, which drains water to a large reservoir in Marly-le-Roi. At full capacity, more than a million gallons of water a day can be pumped into the Marly reservoir, but ironically, in 1690, Marly Castle became the main recipient, as Louis XIV built a huge waterfall to compete with the water system. Versailles.
In 1685, the pressure on the water supply led Louis XIV to create another canal, the Eure Canal, to transport water from the Eure River, 52 miles to the southwest.  The water channel was intended to carry water by gravity from a high reservoir near the river, through the park of the Castle of Maintenon, to Versailles. Work on the Eure aqueduct stopped in 1688, when France entered the Nine Years’ War, and the poor royal finances at the end of Louis XIV’s life prevented further work.
Despite huge investments in canals and machines to evacuate water, Versailles never had enough water for hundreds of its fountains. When the king walks in the park, the fountain is only opened when the king approaches them and dies after his departure.
At the time of Louis XIV, even the palace, with thousands of inhabitants, still lacked drinking water, which required a periodic relocation of the palace to the palaces of Fontainebleau or Compiègne. There was no clean water tap above ground level until the reign of Louis XV, and even then it was limited to the king’s private kitchen and bathroom. For everyone, the water is carried by a small army of water carriers upstairs, filling copper tanks in the private apartments of courtiers.
During the reign of Louis XIV and most of the reign of Louis XV, there was no plumbing to talk about in the palace itself. Only the king, queen and dolphin have something approaching the bathroom. For most members of the palace, bathing is rarely done and can only be done in a portable bathtub in their room, filled with water carried by hand through the nearest ground floor faucet.
In the 1670s, Louis XIV had a magnificent five-room bathing complex on the ground floor of his mistress’ apartment, Madame de Montespan. The baths were installed with hot and cold running water, at that time a remarkable technological advance, but their main use was for sexual relations between partners rather than for cleanliness.
This suite was demolished and closed after the end of the relationship in 1684. Louis XV ordered a bathroom to build at the age of thirteen – he would later build a bathroom equipped with hot and cold water. To calm down, many members of the palace have their own folding toilets, called reclining chairs, which are soft chairs with a chamber pot underneath. It is estimated that there are only three hundred at a time. Although it is forbidden to remove the contents of this chamber pot from the window, this practice still exists in the courtyard of the palace.
Most of the inhabitants of Versailles use public latrines located throughout the palace, outside the main gallery or at the end of a residential corridor on the upper floor. It is a constant source of foul odours, polluting nearby rooms and causing problems with obstruction and leakage of waste from iron and lead pipes that drain prices upstairs. Despite their discouragement, people defecated under stairs or in remote alleyways, especially if the toilets were closed. The basement gallery of the south wing is vulnerable to this, to the point that iron bars must be installed in the corridor outside the rooms of Dauphin Louis and Dauphine when they moved to the south wing in 1745.
As usual, the royal family and the servants of the palace’s high court had their superior hygienic dispositions. Louis XV’s maintenance of cleanliness led him to install an old toilet, imported from England, in 1738. Known as the “English Place,” flush toilets were supplied with water by tanks suspended and emptied into the sewers of the ground. , prevents the remaining odor. By the mid-18th century, other members of the royal family, Madame du Barry, and several senior officials had also installed their own toilets.
The character “boy pee” in the film World Story by Mel Brooks: Part 1 is based on a real work in the palace.
Groves or groves Palace of Versailles Paris
Most of the park is divided into geometric bumps, gardens as compartments; eight on the north side of the garden and six on the south. The groves were created for Louis XIV between 1680 and 1690. They are lined with tall trees and carefully pruned into cubic shapes resembling rooms with vegetated walls. Each grove has themes and fountains, statues, caves and other decorations. Some are very formal, such as the Grove of the Colonnade of Hardouin-Mansart, with circular columns alternating with fountains, while others imitate nature. They are often used for concerts or theatrical performances.
Some of the early gardens were modified without being recognized by later kings, but the most famous patron, La Salle de Bal de Le Nôtre (literally, “ballroom”), also known as the Rocky Grove (c. 1685), and Bosquet Hardouin-Mansart de Il Colonnade, both were restored as before under Louis XIV. Other famous gardens include The Domes, the Enceladus Grove (after Enceladus, circa 1675), the Water Theatre and the Baths of Apollo. Some are now decorated with contemporary art.
Grand Trianon and Petit Trianon Palace of Versailles Paris
In 1668, Louis XIV decided to build a small palace some distance from the main palace, where he could spend more time quietly away from the hustle and bustle of his palace. He bought a village called Trianon next to the park and built a pavilion covered in blue and white porcelain in a fashionable Chinese style; completed in 1670, and became known as Trianon porcelain.
In 1687, he replaced it with the Grand Trianon, a larger and more classical pavilion designed by Mansart, with a terrace and walls covered with marble slabs of different colors. After the Revolution, Trianon served as the residence of Napoleon I and later King Louis-Philippe during their visit to Versailles. It was decorated today mainly under Napoleon and Louis-Philippe.
Petit Trianon was created between 1763 and 1768 by Ange-Jacques Gabriel for Louis XV. The square-shaped building, with each different façade, is a prototype of neoclassicism in France. The most ornate façade, with Corinthian columns, faces the French landscape garden. Louis XVI gave Petit Trianon as a gift to his wife, Marie Antoinette. He asked architect Richard Mique and painter Hubert Robert to design a new English landscape garden to replace the official French garden.
Not far from Petit Trianon, he built the Stone Pavilion, and added the classic rotunda of the Temple of Love, built in 1777. In 1780, he built a small theatre in Petit Trianon. In his theatre, he was cast in one of the first shows of the drama The Marriage of Figaro by Pierre Beaumarchais, which helped to ensure its success. He was at the Petit Trianon in July 1789 when he first heard news from Paris about the attack on the Bastille and the beginning of the French Revolution.
The Hamlet of Marie Antoinette
One of the most famous features of the park is the Hamlet of the Queen, a small rural hamlet near Petit Trianon that was built for Queen Marie Antoinette between 1783 and 1785 by the royal architect Richard Mique with the help of the painter Hubert Robert. It replaces the botanical garden created by Louis XV, and consists of twelve structures, ten of which still exist, in the style of Norman villages. It was designed for the queen and her friends to entertain themselves while playing farmers, and included a farm with dairy products, factories, boudoirs, dove apartments, lighthouse-shaped towers from which people could fish in ponds, lookouts, waterfalls and caves, and luxury furnished cottage with pool room for queens.
Political functions and modern ceremonies
The palace still performs political functions. Heads of state are placed in the ice gallery; The French bicameral Parliament – which consists of the Senate (Senate) and the National Assembly (National Assembly) – meets in a joint session (Congress of the French Parliament) in Versailles to revise or amend the French Constitution, a tradition that came into force with the enactment of the Constitution of 1875.
For example, Parliament met in a joint session in Versailles to ratify the constitutional amendment in June 1999 (for the national application of the decision of the International Criminal Court and for gender equality in the list of candidates), in January 2000 (ratified the Amsterdam Agreement) and in March 2003 (determining “decentralised organisation” of the French Republic).
In 2009, President Nicolas Sarkozy spoke about the global financial crisis before a congress in Versailles, held for the first time since 1848, when Charles-Louis Napoleon Bonaparte gave a speech to the Second French Republic. Following the November 2015 Paris attacks, President François Hollande delivered a speech to a joint parliamentary session at the rare Palace of Versailles.  This is the third time since 1848 that a French president has delivered a speech at a joint session of the French Parliament in Versailles. The President of the National Assembly has an official apartment at the Palace of Versailles.
One of the most puzzling aspects of learning Versailles is the cost – how much was spent by Louis XIV and his successor at Versailles. Due to the nature of the development of Versailles and the changing role of the castle, construction costs are essentially a personal matter. Initially, Versailles was to be an occasional residence for Louis XIV and was called “the king’s house”. Consequently, much of the initial financing for development came from the king’s own portfolio, which was financed by revenues from his lands as well as by the province of New France (Canada), which, while part of France, was the king’s private property and was therefore released out of Parliament’s control.
Once Louis XIV began his development campaign, spending on Versailles became more important for the public record, especially after Jean-Baptiste Colbert was Minister of Finance. The expenses for Versailles were recorded in a summary known as the Building Accounts of the Regiment the Reign of Louis XIV and which was edited and published in five volumes by Jules Guiffrey in the 19th century. This volume provides valuable archival documents in accordance with financial expenses on all aspects of Versailles, such as disbursed payments for many varied occupations such as artists and mole catchers.
To cope with the cost of Versailles during the first years of Louis XIV’s private domination, Colbert decided that Versailles should be a “window” of France. Thus, all the materials used for the construction and decoration of Versailles are produced in France. Even the mirrors used in the decoration of the ice gallery are made in France. While Venice in the 17th century monopolized the manufacture of mirrors, Colbert managed to attract a number of craftsmen from Venice to make mirrors for Versailles. However, due to claims of Venetian ownership in mirror-making technology, the Venetian government ordered the killing of craftsmen to keep the secrets of the Venetian Republic. To meet the decoration and decoration requirements of Versailles, Colbert nationalized the Gobelin family carpet factory to become the royal factory of the Goblins.
Louis XIV visited the Goblins with Colbert on October 15, 1667. The tapestry of the series “History of the King” designed by Charles Le Brun and woven between 1667 and 1672. Silver furniture by Louis XIV was seen in this carpet.
In 1667, the name of the company was changed to the Royal Crown Furniture Manufacture. The goblins were responsible for all the decoration needs of the palace, which were under the direction of Charles Le Brun.
One of the most expensive elements of the supply of luxury apartments during the early years of Louis XIV’s reign was silver furniture, which could be considered a standard – with other criteria – to determine reasonable costs for Versailles. Accounts carefully lists expenses for silver furniture – expenses for the artist, final payment, shipping – as well as a description and weight of the items purchased. The entries for 1681 and 1682 for the silver fences used in Mercury’s living room serve as an example.
Silver fence containing more than a ton of silver, the price is more than 560,000 pounds. It is difficult – if not impossible – to provide a precise exchange rate between 1682 and today. However, Frances Buckland provided valuable information that gave an idea of the actual costs of spending at Versailles at the time of Louis XIV. In 1679, Ms. de Maintenon declared that the cost of feeding and light for twelve people for a day was just over 14 pounds. In December 1689, to finance the costs of the Augsburg League War, Louis XIV ordered versailles to order all silver furniture and objects – including chamber pots – to be sent with mint to be thawed.
Clearly, silver furniture alone represents a significant expense in the finances of Versailles. Although the decoration of the palace is expensive, some other costs are minimized. For example, the development workforce is often small, mainly due to the fact that soldiers in peacetime and in winter, when war is not waged, are forced to act at Versailles. In addition, given the quality and uniqueness of the products made at the Gobelins for use and exhibition at Versailles, the palace serves as a place to highlight not only the success of Colbert’s commercialism, but also to present the best that France can produce.
spent on the construction of Versailles is speculative. According to 2000 estimates, the amount spent during the Old Plan was US$2 billion, and this figure is likely to be being assessed. The expenses of the Fifth Republic of France alone, intended for the restoration and maintenance of Versailles, may have exceeded the expenses of the Sun King.
List of films, music and video games taken at the Palace of Versailles Paris :
- Madagascar 3: Europe’s Most Wanted (2012) is an animated film that saves sophisticated Masonic chimpanzees and philophiles as “King of Versailles” by referring to the Palace of Versailles
- Marie Antoinette (2006) is a film written and directed by Sofia Coppola and starring Kirsten Dunst. This is based on the life of Queen Marie Antoinette in the years leading up to the French Revolution, filmed on site at the Palace of Versailles.
- “The Palace of Versailles” is a song by singer and composer Al Stewart, detailing the French Revolution, the terror and the military coup d’état of Napoleon Bonaparte, from the point of view of the “Lonely Castle of Versailles”
- On July 2, 2005, French Live 8 took place in the courtyard of Versailles
- In the episode Doctor Who “Girl in the Fire Place” (2005), The Doctor meets Madame de Pompadour at the Palace of Versailles
- Let Them Eat Cake, a 1999 BBC comedy starring Jennifer Saunders and Dawn French, at the Palais.
- Versailles is a 2015 Anglo-American-French-Canadian television series that was built during the construction of the Palace of Versailles during the reign of Louis XIV
- Pokemon X and Perfume Palace Y are based at the Palace of Versailles
- Assassin’s Creed Rogue is held in Versailles at the end of the match
- Assassin’s Creed Unity is held in Versailles at the beginning of the game
- Castlevania: Bloodlines is a Konami video game where Versailles is the fifth stage.
Main sources : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Versailles