Notre-Dame de Paris is a medieval cathedral in the Rue de la Cité in the 4th arrondissement of Paris. This cathedral was ordained to the Virgin Mary and is considered one of the best examples of French Gothic architecture. Its avant-garde use of rib cabinets and flying supports, large coloured rosettes, as well as naturalism and abundance of sculpted decorations set it apart from earlier Roman styles. The main elements that distinguish Our Lady include one of the world’s largest organs and its huge church bells.
Notre-Dame de Paris is located in Parvis Notre-Dame – Place Jean-Paul-II, Paris. Is a relic of the tradition of the Roman rite, Catholicism. The architecture was built in the French Gothic style of 1163-1345. The length of the building is 128 m (420 feet), 48 m wide (157 feet) with 2 towers as high as 69 m (226 feet) that are devoured by fire, and the other tower is 91.44 m (300 feet). The building has 10 bells and is below the Archdiocese of Paris In 1991, Notre-Dame de Paris was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Construction Of Notre-Dame De Paris Began In 1160
The construction of the cathedral began in 1160 under Bishop Maurice de Sully and was largely completed in 1260, although it was often modified in the following centuries. In the 1790s, Notre Dame experienced blasphemy during the French Revolution; most of their religious images are damaged or destroyed. In the 19th century, the cathedral was the coronation of Napoleon I and the burial of many presidents of the French Republic.
Popular interest in the cathedral developed shortly after the publication in 1831 of the novel Victor Hugo Notre-Dame de Paris (better known in English as The Hunchback of Notre Dame). This led to a major restoration project between 1844 and 1864, overseen by Eugene Viollet-le-Duc. The liberation of the Allies of Paris in 1944 was celebrated at Notre Dame with the song of the Magnificat. From 1963, the façade of the cathedral was cleaned of soot and dirt for centuries. Other clean-up and restoration projects were carried out between 1991 and 2000.
hedral is one of the symbols of the city of Paris and the most famous French country. As the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Paris, Notre Dame contains the cathedral of the archbishop of Paris (Michel Aupetit). In 1805, Notre Dame received the honorary status of minor basilica. About 12 million people visit Notre Dame each year, making it the most visited monument in Paris. This cathedral is famous for its Lenten sermon, founded by Dominique Jean-Baptiste Henri Lacordaire in the 1830s. In recent years, an increasing number of people have been provided by prominent public figures and public academics.
The cathedral has gradually lost its decoration and original works of art. Some notable examples of Gothic, Baroque and 19th century statues and a group of altars from the 17th and early 18th centuries remain in the cathedral’s collection. Some of the most important relics of Christendom, including the crown of thorns, a true cross and nails of the true cross, are preserved in Our Lady.
Under renovation and restoration, the roof of Notre Dame caught fire on the night of April 15, 2019. Burned for about 15 hours, the cathedral suffered serious damage, including the destruction of the spire (wooden hole above the junction) and most of the wooden roof snush above the sky – dome-shaped stone sky. Contamination of the nearest site and environment occurs.
After the fire, many proposals were made to modernize the design of the cathedral. However, on 16 July 2019, the French Parliament passed a law requiring its reconstruction just before the fire. The stabilization of the structure in the event of a collapse is expected to continue until the end of 2020, with reconstruction beginning in 2021. The French government hopes that the reconstruction can be completed in the spring of 2024, when the 2024 Summer Olympics open in Paris.
History of Notre-Dame de Paris, France
It is thought that before the arrival of Christianity in France, a Gallo-Roman temple dedicated to Jupiter was located on the site of Our Lady. The proof is the pillar of the boatmen, discovered in 1710. This building has been replaced by the Paleo-Christian Basilica. We don’t know if this church, dedicated to St. Stephen’ Day, was built at the end of the 4th century and later renovated, or if it was built in the 7th century from an old church, perhaps the Cathedral of Childebert I. [b] Basilica, then St. Stephen’s Cathedral [en] is located about 40 meters (130 feet) west of the site of Our Lady and is wider and lower and about half of its size. For its time, it was very large – 70 meters (230 feet) long – and separated into naves and four aisles by marble columns, then decorated with mosaics.
Four churches replaced the Roman temples before Our Lady. The first was the Basilica of St. Stephen of the 4th century, then the Merovingian renovation of the church which was then renovated in 857 under the Carolingians as a cathedral. The last church before Notre Dame Cathedral was a Roman renovation of the previous structure which, although enlarged and renovated, was apparently unsuitable for the growth of the Parisian population. A baptism, the Church of John the Baptist, built before 452, is located on the north side of the Church of Saint-Étienne at the work of Jacques-Germain Soufflot in the 18th century.
In 1160, the bishop of Paris, Maurice de Sully, decided to build a new, much larger church. He quickly destroyed the Roman cathedral and chose to recycle his materials.  Sully decided that the new church should be built in the Gothic style, which had been inaugurated in the Royal Monastery of Saint Denis in the late 1130s.
Construction of Notre-Dame de Paris (2011).
The historical writer John of St. Victor noted in the Histori Historiarum that the construction of Our Lady began between March 24 and April 25, 1163 with the laying of the cornerstone before King Louis VII and Pope Alexander III. Four phases of construction took place under the bishops Maurice de Sully and Eudes de Sully (unrelated to Mauritius), according to masters whose names were lost.
Cross-section of a double support arch and nave support, designed by Eugene Viollet-le-Duc because it will appear from 1220 to 1230.
The first phase begins with the construction of the choir and its two ambulances. According to Robert de Torigni, the choir was completed in 1177 and the high altar was ordained on 19 May 1182 by Cardinal Henri de Château-Marçay, pontifical envoy to Paris, and Maurice de Sully. The second phase, from 1182 to 1190, involved the construction of four sections of the nave behind the choir and its aisles at the height of the clerestories.
It begins after the end of the chorus but ends before the end determined from the middle is over. From 1190, the foundations of the façade were put in place and the first lines were completed. Heraclius of Caesarea called to the third crusade in 1185 of the cathedral which was still incomplete.
Louis IX kept relics of Christ’s passion, which included the crown of thorns, cross nails and a piece of cross, which he had bought at great expense from the Latin Emperor Baudouin II, in the cathedral during the construction of the Holy Chapel.
The decision was made to add a transept to the choir, where the altar is located, to bring more light to the center of the church. Using a four-part rib dome simpler than six parts means the roof is stronger and can be higher. After the death of Bishop Maurice de Sully in 1196, his successor, Eudes de Sully oversaw the completion of the transept and continued to work in the central part of the church, which was almost completed at the time of his own death in 1208. At that time, the west façade was largely built, but not completed until the mid-1240s. Between 1225 and 1250, the upper part of the nave gallery was built, as well as two towers in the west façade.
Another important change occurred in the mid-13th century, when the transept was renovated in the last radiant style; in the late 1240s, Jean de Chelles added a pointed portal to the northern transept ending with a spectacular rose window. Shortly after (from 1258) Pierre de Montreuil executed a similar pattern in the southern transept. The two portals of the transept are richly decorated with sculptures; the southern portal presents scenes from the life of St. Stephen and various local saints, while the north portal shows the childhood of Christ and the story of Theophile in the eardrum, with a very influential statue of the Virgin to the child on the trumeau.
The main builders Pierre de Chelles, Jean Ravy, Jean le Bouteiller and Raymond du Temple succeeded in Chelles and Montreuil and then built the cathedral. Ravy completed the rood chapel of sail and bedside scales, then began the 15-meter (49-foot) choir stand. Jean le Bouteiller, Ravy’s nephew, succeeded him in 1344 and he himself was replaced at his death in 1363 by his deputy, Raymond du Temple.
Philip The Fair Opened The First Estates General At The Cathedral In 1302.
An important innovation in the 13th century was the introduction of flying crutches. Before the support, all the weight of the roof is pressed outwards and down against the wall, and the support supports them. With flying supports, the weight is carried by the vault ribbons completely outside the structure towards a series of rotating supports, surmounted by rocky peaks that give them greater weight. The walls of the shelf mean that the walls can be taller and thinner, and can have much larger windows.
The date of the first medium is not known with great precision beyond the installation date in the 13th century. However, art historian Andrew Tallon argues that detailed laser analyses of all the structures that support are part of the original design. According to Tallon, the scans showed that “the top of the building has not moved a smidgen in 800 years”, whereas if added, one would expect a movement before they were added. Tallon later concluded that “the flight stand was there from the beginning.” it has a range of fifteen meters between the wall and the back.
John de Jandun recognized the cathedral as one of the three most important buildings in Paris [important buildings] in his 1323 treatise on the praise of Paris:
The most glorious church of the most glorious Virgin Mary, the mother of God, should shine, like the sun among the stars. And although some speakers, with their own free judgment, because [they] see little easily, could say that others are prettier, I believe, however, with respect, that, if they are present, they are more diligent throughout and its parts, they will quickly retract this opinion.
Where, I ask, will they find two towers so beautiful and perfect, so high, so large, so solid, dressed around them with different types of ornaments? Where, I ask, will they find a multi-party arrangement of so many side domes, above and below? Where, I ask, will they find a light installation like the many chapels that surround it? Moreover, let them tell me in church if I can see such a large cross, where a hand separates the choir from the nave.
s ready to know where [there are] two of these circles, which face each other in a straight line, which because of their appearance receive the fourth vowel name [O]; among them balls and smaller circles, with incredible intelligence, so that some are arranged in a circle, others with the wrong angle, around the reddish windows with precious and beautiful colors with the most delicate images. In fact, I believe that this church offers such a meticulous reason for admiration that its examination can hardly satisfy the soul.
Henry VI of the coronation of England as King of France, was ten years old, during the Hundred Years’ War. Membership of the throne is in accordance with the Treaty of Troyes 1420.
On December 16, 1431, the kings of Henry VI of England were crowned King of France at Notre Dame, the traditional coronation church of Reims Cathedral under French control.
During the Renaissance, the Gothic style fell into disuse, and the internal pillars and internal walls of Notre Dame were covered with carpets. In 1548, the Huguenot riot damaged several Notre Dame statues, calling it an idol.
The fountain on the Notre-Dame forecourt was added in 1625 to provide running water to the inhabitants of nearby Paris.
King Louis XIV, at the request of his father, Louis XIII, decided in 1699 to make important changes to Notre Dame. He commissioned Robert de Cotte to renovate. Cotte replaced the wooden screen with a luxurious gold-plated wrought iron fence, opened the choir and outpatients and removed the tomb in the middle. New furniture is produced as well as high altars today, depicting Louis XIV and Louis XIII kneeling in front of a Pietà.
Since 1449, the union of the goldsmiths of Paris has regularly contributed to the chapter of the cathedral. In 1630, it was decided that the guild would donate large altars each year on May 1. These works are known as the Grand Mays.  Subjects are limited to episodes of Acts. The prestigious commission was entrusted to the most distinguished painters and, after 1648, to the members of the Royal Academy.
Seventy-six paintings were given in 1708, when the custom was stopped for financial reasons. The works were confiscated in 1793 and most were later dissolved between the regional museums of France. What was left of the cathedral was removed or moved inside the building by the restoration of the 19th century.
15 Grand Grays Remain In Nôtre Dame:
- The Descent of the Holy Spirit by Jacques Blanchard – 1634
- Peter healing the sick from his shadow of Laurent de la Hyre – 1635
- The Conversion of Saint Paul by Laurent de la Hyre – 1637
- The Centenier Corneille at the feet of Saint Pierre d’Aubin Vouet – 1639
- The Preaching of St. Peter in Jerusalem by Charles Poerson – 1642
- The Crucification of St. Peter by Sebastian Bourdon – 1643
- The Crucification of St. Andrew of Charles Le Brun – 1647
- Paul blinds the false prophet Barjesu and converts the proconsul Sergius of Nicholas Loir – 1650
- The stoning of St. Stephen by Charles Le Brun – 1651
- The Flagellation of St. Paul and Silas by Louis Testelin – 1655
- Saint Andrew trembles with joy at the sight of his ordeal by Gabriel Blanchard – 1670
- The Prophet Agabus predicting st. Paul’s suffering in Jerusalem by Louis Chéron – 1687
- Sceva’s sons beaten by the demon of Mathieu Elyas – 1702
- These paintings were damaged by water during the 2019 fire and removed for conservation.
- An altar depicting the Visitation, painted by Jean Jouvenet in 1707, is also located in the cathedral.
The cannon Antoine de La Porte was awarded to Louis XIV six paintings illustrating the life of the Virgin Mary for the choir. At the same time, Charles de La Fosse painted the adoration of the Magi, now in the Louvre. Louis Antoine de Noailles, archbishop of Paris, profoundly altered the roof of Notre-Dame in 1726, renovating the frame and removing gargoyles with tin gutters.
Noailles has also reinforced retaining walls, galleries, terraces and safes.  In 1756, the canon of the cathedral decided that its interior was too dark. Medieval stained glass windows, with the exception of roses, have been removed and replaced with plain white glass panels.  Finally, Jacques-Germain Soufflot was tasked with modifying the portal at the front of the cathedral to facilitate the entrance of the procession.
French Revolution and Napoleon
After the French Revolution of 1789, Notre Dame and the rest of the clergy in France were confiscated and made public. The cathedral was consecrated again in 1793 to the cult of reason, and then to the cult of being in 1794. Meanwhile, many of the cathedral’s treasures were destroyed or looted. Twenty-eight statues of biblical kings on the western façade, misinterpreted as statues of French kings, were beheaded.
Many heads were found during the 1977 excavations nearby and exhibited at the Cluny Museum. For a moment, the goddess of freedom replaced the Virgin Mary on several altars. The big bell of the cathedral escaped the crash. All the other large statues at the front, with the exception of the statue of the Virgin Mary at the door of the monastery, were destroyed. This cathedral is used for food storage and other non-religious purposes.
With Concordat in 1801, Napoleon Bonaparte returned Our Lady to the Catholic Church, although this was not completed until April 18, 1802. Napoleon also appointed a new bishop of Paris, Jean-Baptiste de Belloy, who restored the interior of the cathedral. Charles Percier and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine made an almost Gothic change to Notre Dame for the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of France in the cathedral. The exterior of the building was painted white and the interior was decorated in neoclassical and then fashionable.
Restoration of Notre Dame de Paris
After Napoleon’s war, Notre Dame was in such poor condition that Parisian officials considered its demolition. Victor Hugo, who admired the cathedral, wrote the novel Notre-Dame de Paris (published in English under the title Le Bossu de Notre-Dame) in 1831 to save Notre Dame. The book was a huge success, raising awareness of the deteriorating state of the cathedral. The same year Hugo’s novel was published, anti-legitimists plundered the Notre Dame sacristy and smashed the stained glass windows. In 1844, King Louis Philippe ordered the restoration of the church.
The architect who until now was responsible for the maintenance of Notre-Dame, Étienne-Hippolyte Godde, was dismissed. In his place, Jean-Baptiste Lassus and Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, who distinguished themselves from the nearest Sainte-Chapelle restoration, were appointed in 1844. The following year, Viollet-le-Duc proposed a budget of 3,888,500 francs, reduced to 2,650,000 francs, for the restoration of Notre-Dame and the construction of a new sacristy building. This budget ran out in 1850 and work stopped when Viollet-le-Duc made a proposal for more money.
al, the cost of restoration is more than 12 million francs. On Lassus’ death in 1857, Viollet-le-Duc became the sole architect of the project until its completion on 31 May 1864. Supervising a large team of sculptors, glassmakers and other craftsmen and working from drawings or engravings, Viollet-le-Duc is redone or an additional decoration if it feels that it is in the spirit of the original style. One of these last elements is a taller and more ornate tower, to replace the original 13th century tower, which was removed in 1786. Restoration decorations include a statue of St. Thomas that resembles Viollet-le-Duc, as well as a statue of a mythical creature at gallery of Chimeras.
The construction of the sacristy is very expensive financially. To ensure a solid foundation, workers in Viollet-le-Duc must dig 9 meters (30 feet). The glazier carefully copied the 13th century style, as written by art historians Antoine Lusson and Adolphe Napoleon Didron.
Antonieta Rivas Mercado fell on the altar of Notre Dame on February 11, 1931 with a gun that belonged to his lover José Vasconcelos. He died instantly.
During the liberation of Paris in August 1944, the cathedral suffered some minor damage caused by stray bullets. Medieval glass has been broken and replaced with glass with modern abstract design. On 26 August, a special mass was held in the cathedral to celebrate the liberation of Paris from Germany; in the presence of General Charles De Gaulle and General Philippe Leclerc.
In 1963, at the initiative of the Minister of Culture André Malraux and to mark the 800th anniversary of the cathedral, the façade was cleaned of soot and dirt for centuries, restoring it to its original faded white color.
The time of Notre-Dame in the Year 1860.
The Charles de Gaulle Requiem Mass was held in Notre Dame on November 12, 1970. The following year, on June 26, 1971, Philippe Petit crossed a rope tied between two Notre-Dame steeples and entertained the spectators.
After the Magnificat of May 30, 1980, Pope John Paul II celebrated Mass in the cathedral forecourt. François Mitterrand’s requiem mass took place in the cathedral, as was the case with previous French heads of state on 11 January 1996.
The bricks outside the cathedral deteriorated in the 19th and 20th centuries due to the increase in air pollution in Paris, which accelerated the erosion of decoration and changed the color of the stone. By the late 1980s, some gargoyles and towers had fallen or were too loose to stay in place. A decade-long renovation program began in 1991 and replaced most of its exterior, taking care to preserve the cathedral’s authentic architectural elements, including strict inspections of the new limestone blocks.
A silent electrical system, not seen from below, is also installed on the roof to avoid pigeons. The cathedral pipe organ is enhanced by a computer system to control the mechanical connection to the pipe. The west face was cleaned and restored in time for the millennium celebration in December 1999.
Notre Dame of Paris in the 21st century
Notre Dame in May 2012. From top to bottom, the walls of the nave are pierced with clear-window windows, triforium arches and arches at the aisles. Cardinal Mass Jean-Marie Lustiger, former archbishop of Paris and Jews who converted to Catholicism, was held in Notre Dame on August 10, 2007.
The set of four 19th century bells on the north tower of Notre Dame was melted down and reprinted into a new bronze bell in 2013 to celebrate the 850th anniversary of the building. They were designed to recreate the original bell sounds of 17th century cathedrals. Despite renovations in the 1990s, the cathedral continues to show signs of setbacks that prompted the central government to propose a new renovation program in the late 2010s.
The total cost of the renovation is estimated at 100 million euros, planned by the archbishop of Paris to be raised with funds from the national government and private donations. The renovation of the 6 million euro cathedral tower began at the end of 2018 and continued the following year, requiring the temporary removal of copper statues on the roof and other decorative elements a few days before the April 2019 fire.
Notre Dame began the one-year celebration of the 850th anniversary of the installation of the first building block of the cathedral on December 12, 2012.  On this anniversary, May 21, 2013, Dominique Venner, a white historian and nationalist, placed a letter on the altar of the Church and shot himself, dying instantly. About 1,500 visitors were evacuated from the cathedral.
French police arrested two people on September 8, 2016 after a car containing seven gas cylinders was found near Notre Dame.
On February 10, 2017, French police arrested four people known to the authorities in Montpellier for having links to radical Islamic organizations, accused of planning a trip to Paris and attacking the cathedral.  Later this year, on June 6, visitors closed inside Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris after a man with a hammer attacked a police officer outside.
Notre-Dame de Paris Fire 2019
On April 15, 2019, the cathedral caught fire, destroying the spire and the “forest” of oak beams that supported the main roof. The fire is believed to have been related to ongoing renovations.
According to other research, a fire broke out in the attic of the cathedral at 6:18 p.m. The smoke alarm immediately reported the fire to cathedral employees, who did not call the fire department but sent the cathedral guards to investigate. Instead of going to the appropriate attic, the guard was sent to the wrong place, in the attic of the adjoining sacristy, and reported that there had been no fire. The guard called his boss, who did not immediately respond. About 15 minutes later, the error was discovered, where the goalkeeper’s boss told him to go to the right place. Firefighters have not yet been informed.
By the time the guards had climbed three hundred steps to the attic of the cathedral, the fire had developed well. The alarm system was not designed to automatically alert the fire department, which was finally called at 6:51 p.m. after the attic guards returned and reported fires now raging, and more than half an hour after the fire alarm began. Firefighters arrived in less than ten minutes.
The top of the cathedral collapses at 7:50 p.m., dropping about 750 tons of stone and lead. Firefighters inside were fired. At that time, the fire spread to the north tower, where there are eight bells. Firefighters focused their efforts on the tower. They are afraid that if the bell falls, they can destroy the tower and endanger other structures of the tower and the entire cathedral.
They must climb fire-threatened stairs and compete with a low water pressure for their pipes. When other firefighters watered the stairs and roof, a team of twenty people climbed the narrow stairs of the south tower, crossed to the north tower, lowered the hose to be connected to the fire pump outside the cathedral and sprayed water into the fire under the bells. At 9:45 p.m., they were finally able to bring the fire under control.
saved facades, towers, walls, litters and stained glass windows. The Grand Organ, which had more than 8,000 pipes and was built by François Thierry in the 18th century was also saved but suffered water damage.  Due to ongoing renovations, copper statues on the arrow were removed before the fire. The stone dome that forms the ceiling of the cathedral has several holes but is declared intact.
Since 1905, French cathedrals (including Notre Dame) have been owned by the self-insured state. Some costs can be recovered through insurance coverage if a fire is caused by a contractor working on site. The French insurance company AXA offers insurance coverage to two contracting companies that worked on the restoration of Notre Dame before the fire that destroyed the cathedral. AXA also offers insurance coverage for some relics and works of art in the cathedral.
President Emmanuel Macron said about 500 firefighters had helped fight the blaze. One firefighter was seriously injured and two police officers were injured in a fire.
Decorative rugs woven in the early 1800s will be on public display for the third time in recent decades. The decoration was saved from Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris after the fire.
For the first time in more than 200 years, the Christmas Mass did not take place at the cathedral on December 25, 2019, due to restoration work underway after the fire.
Stabilization of the building and reconstruction of Notre Dame de Paris
Immediately after the fire, President Macron promised that Notre Dame would be restored and called for the work to be completed within five years. An international architectural competition has also been announced for the redesign of the tower and roof. The announcement of this hasty competition for the upper towers has drawn direct criticism from the international press of academics and professionals who have criticized the French government for being too focused on the rapid construction of new towers and ignoring the framework of its response in a more holistic way as an inclusive social process, covering the entire building. and its long-term users.
A new law was immediately drafted to exempt Notre Dame from existing laws and procedures, which encouraged an open letter to President Macron signed by more than 1,170 heritage experts urging compliance with existing regulations. The law, which was passed on 11 May 2019, was hotly debated in the French National Assembly, with opponents accusing the Macron government of using Notre Dame for political purposes and advocates arguing the need for policies and tax breaks. to encourage philanthropic giving.
President Macron has hinted that he is open to “contemporary architectural clues.” Even before the competition rules were announced, architects from around the world offered advice: the proposals included a three-hundred-foot carbon fibre tower, covered with gold leaf; stained glass roof; A greenhouse tree garden, open to the sky; and a column of light pointing upwards. A poll published in the French newspaper Le Figaro on 8 May 2019 showed that 55% of French respondents wanted a tower identical to the original. French Culture Minister Franck Riester promised that the recovery “would not be hasty”. On July 16, 2019, the French Parliament passed a law requiring the reconstruction of the cathedral just before the fire.
19, the French government announced that the first phase of reconstruction, stabilizing the structure against collapse, would last until the end of 2021. Reconstruction could not begin until early 2021. President Macron has announced that he hopes the rebuilt cathedral could be completed in the spring of 2024, at the opening of the 2024 Summer Olympics. In December 2019, Bishop Patrick Chauvet, Chancellor of the Cathedral, said there was still a 50% chance that Notre Dame could not be saved because of the risk that the remaining scaffolding would fall into three damaged vaults.
The first recovery task is to remove 250 to 300 tons of molten metal tubes, scaffolding remains, which remain at the top after a fire and can still fall into a safe and cause structural collapse. This phase began in February 2020 and will continue until April 2020. A large eighty-four-metre crane is placed next to the cathedral to help remove the scaffolding. The stained glass windows were removed from the centre and the flying supports were reinforced by wooden arches to stabilize the structure.
Renewal of the reconstruction of Notre Dame de Paris
On 15 March 2020, the dismantling and removal of the molten scaffolding from the roof and interior of the cathedral was halted due to health and safety restrictions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. No date has been set for restarting.
On April 10, 2020, the Archbishop of Paris, Michel Aupetit, and several participants, all dressed in protective clothing, celebrated Good Friday in the cathedral. Music provided by violinist Renaud Capuçon; The readers are actors Philippe Torreton and Judith Chemla. Chemla gave a capella of the Ave Maria.
Tower and arrow of Notre Dame de Paris
The two towers are 69 meters (226 feet) high and were the tallest structures in Paris until the completion of the Eiffel Tower in 1889. The tower was the last major element of the cathedral to be built. The south tower was first built, between 1220 and 1240, and the north tower between 1235 and 1250. The newer north tower is slightly larger, as can be seen directly in front of the church. The foothills or foothills of the north tower are also more important.
The north tower is accessible to visitors by stairs, the entrance to which is on the north side of the tower. The stairs have 387 steps and stop in the Gothic room at the rose window, where visitors can look above the forecourt and see collections of paintings and sculptures from the first period of the cathedral’s history.
The arrow’s cathedral (or tower), destroyed in the April 2019 fire, is located above the transept. The original spire was built in the 13th century, probably between 1220 and 1230. The tower was beaten, weakened and bent by the wind for five centuries, and finally removed in 1786. During the restoration of the 19th century, Eugene Viollet-le-Duc decided to do it again, making a new version of oak. The entire tower weighs 750 tons.
Following viollet-le-Duc’s plan, the spire was surrounded by copper statues of the twelve apostles – groups of three at each cardinal point. In front of each group is a symbol representing one of the four evangelists: a winged bull for St Luke, a lion for St. Mark, an eagle for St. John and an angel for St. Matthew. Just days before the fire, the statues were moved for restoration. When they are there, they face Paris, except one: the statue of Saint Thomas, patron of the architect, facing the top of the tower, and has the characteristics of Viollet-le-Duc.
Top of the tower contains three relics: a small piece of crown thorns in the cathedral’s treasure, and relics of Saint Denis and St. Genevieve, patron saints of Paris. They were placed there in 1935 by Archbishop Jean Verdier, to protect the congregation from lightning or other dangers. Male chickens with intact remains were found in the debris shortly after the 2019 fire.
Alchemy alchemy, the central portal of Notre Dame de Paris
The Gothic cathedral is a pauperum of freedom, a “book of the poor”, covered with sculptures that clearly illustrate the stories of the Bible, for most illiterate parishioners. To add to the effect, all the sculptures on the façade were originally painted and gilded. The eardrum above the central portal of the west façade, facing the square, clearly represents the Last Judgment, with figures of sin brought to hell and good Christians brought to heaven. The statue of the right portal shows the coronation of the Virgin Mary, and the portal on the left shows the lives of the saints who are important to Parisians, especially Saint Anne, mother of the Virgin Mary.
The exterior of the cathedral and other Gothic churches are also decorated with sculptures of grotesques or extraordinary and terrifying monsters. These include gargoyles, chimeras, mythical hybrid creatures that usually have the body of a lion and the head of a goat, and Strix or stryge, creatures that look like owls or bats, who eat human flesh. Strix appears in classical Roman literature; it was described by the Roman poet Ovid, who was widely read in the Middle Ages, as a big-headed bird with glued eyes, greedy beaks and greyish white wings. They are part of a visual message for the illiterate faithful, symbols of crime and danger that threaten those who do not follow the teachings of the church.
The gargoyle, which was added around 1240, had a more practical purpose. These are raindrops of the cathedral, designed to separate the water from the roof after the rain, and to throw it as far as possible from the supports and walls and windows where it could erode the mortar that binds the stones. . To produce a much thinner flow than shards of water, a large number of gargoyles are used, so they are also designed to be an architectural decorative element. Rainwater flows from the roof to the pruning gutter, then along the channels of the flying crutch, then along the canal that cuts the back of the gargoyle and out of the mouth away from the cathedral.
In the midst of all religious figures, a sculptural decoration is dedicated to the representation of medieval science and philosophy. The central portal of the west façade is decorated with carved figures holding circular signs with symbols of transformation drawn from alchemy. The main pillar of the central gate of Notre Dame features a statue of a woman on the throne holding a scepter in her left hand and right hand, two books, one open (symbol of general knowledge) and the other closed (esoteric knowledge), with a seven-step scale, symbolizing the seven steps that alchemists have followed in their scientific efforts to try to turn ordinary metal into gold.
Many statues, especially grotesque, were removed from the façade in the 17th and 18th centuries, or destroyed during the French Revolution. They were replaced by Gothic figures, designed by Eugene Viollet-le-Duc, during the 19th century restoration.
The stained glass windows of Notre Dame, especially the three rosettes, are one of the most famous features of the cathedral. The Window of the Western Rose, above the portal, is the first and smallest rose of Notre Dame. It measures 9.6 meters in diameter and is made around 1225, with pieces of glass arranged in a thick round stone frame. There is no more original glass in this window; it was created in the 19th century.
Two transept windows are larger and contain a greater proportion of glass than roses in the west façade, as the new support system makes the middle wall thinner and stronger. The northern rose was created around 1250, and the southern rose around 1260. The Southern Rose at Transept is very famous for its size and artistic talent. Its diameter is 12.9 meters; with the Claire-Voie that surrounds it, a total of 19 meters. It was given to the cathedral by King Louis IX of France, known as St. Louis.
The Southern Roses have 94 medals, arranged in four circles, depicting scenes from the life of Christ and those who witnessed his time on earth. The inner circle has twelve medals that show the twelve apostles. (During the subsequent restoration, some of these original medals were moved to other circles).
The following two circles represent martyrs and virgins who celebrate. The fourth circle shows twenty angels, as well as saints who are important to Paris, especially Saint Denis, Margarita the Virgin with dragons and Saint Eustace. The third and fourth circles also have several descriptions of Old Testament subjects. The third circle has several medals with scenes from the Gospel of Matthew the New Testament dating from the last quarter of the 12th century. This is the oldest glass in the window.
Additional scenes in the corners around the rose window include the descent of Jesus into hell, Adam and Eve, the resurrection of Christ. St. Peter and St. Paul are at the bottom of the window, and Mary Magdalene and John the Apostle above.
Above the rose, there is a window that represents the triumph of Christ sitting in the sky, surrounded by his apostles. Below sixteen windows with painted images of the Prophet. This is not part of the original window; they were painted during the restoration of the 19th century by Alfred Gérenthe, under the direction of Eugene Viollet-le-Duc, after the same window of the Cathedral of Chartres.
Southern roses have a difficult history. In 1543, it was damaged by the completion of a stone wall and was not restored until 1725-1727. It was badly damaged during the French Revolution of 1830. Rioters set fire to the archbishop’s residence next to the cathedral, and many signs were destroyed. The window was completely rebuilt by Viollet-le-Duc in 1861. He rotated the window fifteen degrees to provide a clear vertical and horizontal axis, and replaced broken pieces of glass with new glass of the same style. Today’s windows contain medieval and 19th century glass.
In the 1960s, after three decades of debate, it was decided to replace many of the 19th-century grey windows of the centre designed by Viollet-le-Duc with new ones. The new window, designed by Jacques Le Chevallier, is devoid of human figures and uses abstract grey patterns and colours to try to recreate the interior luminosity of the 13th century cathedral.
The 2019 fire kept three large medieval rosettes intact, but with some damage.  The Chancellor of the Cathedral noted that a rose window had to be dismantled because it was unstable and risky. Most other broken windows have a much lower historical value.
Crypte Notre Dame de Paris
Crypte Archaeology was created in 1965 to protect a number of historic ruins that were discovered during construction and extend from the first settlements in Paris to modern times. The basement is managed by the Carnival Museum, and contains large exhibitions, detailed models of architecture from different periods and how they can be seen inside the ruins. The main element still visible is the ground heating installed during the Roman occupation.
Organ of Notre Dame de Paris
One of the first organs of Notre Dame, built in 1403 by Friedrich Schambantz, was replaced between 1730 and 1738 by François Thierry. During the restoration of the cathedral by Eugene Viollet-le-Duc, Aristide Cavaillé-Coll built a new organ, using the piping of previous instruments. The organ was inaugurated in 1868.
In 1904, Charles Mutin amended and added several judgments; 1924 an electric wind tunnel was installed. A thorough restoration and clean-up was carried out by Joseph Beuchet in 1932. Between 1959 and 1963, the mechanical action with the Barker lever was replaced by electric action by Jean Hermann, and a new organ console was installed.
In the following years, the stop list was gradually modified by Robert Boisseau (who added three chamade stops: 8, “4” and 2 “/16” in 1968) and Jean-Loup Boisseau after 1975, respectively. In the fall of 1983, the combined electrical system was shut down due to the risk of short-circuiting.
Between 1990 and 1992, Jean-Loup Boisseau, Bertrand Cattiaux, Philippe Émeriau, Michel Giroud and the Synaptel Company reviewed and added all the instruments. A new console is installed, using the stop button, pedal and manual keyboard, pedal and balance pedal of the Jean Hermann console. Between 2012 and 2014, Bertrand Cattiaux and Pascal Quoirin recovered, cleaned and modified organs.
The shutdown and locking action has been improved, a new console has been built, (again using a stop block, a pedal, a pedal and a balancing pedal on the 1992 console), a new closed division (“Expressive Resonance,” using pipes from Boisseau’s previous “Little Pedal,” which can now be used as a floating division), organs and façade pipes are restored and general adjustments are made. The organ currently has 115 plays (156 notes) on five manuals and pedals, and more than 8,000 pipes.
Bells of Notre Dame de Paris
Nine bells of Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris were publicly displayed in February 2013 (from left to right) Jean-Marie, Maurice, Benoît-Joseph, Étienne, Marcel, Denis, Anne-Geneviève, Gabriel bourdon Marie
The cathedral has ten bells. Bumblebee, emmanuel says, weighs 13 tons. And listening to F sharp, has been a companion of some of the major historical events of France since its first casting of the fifteenth century. Such as the coronation of French kings, papal visits and the end of conflicts such as world War I and World War II. It also rings in times of sadness as for the funeral of the French head of state, tragedies such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and special holidays such as Christmas, Easter and Ascension. Reorganized at the request of King Louis XIV in 1681, he managed to escape the events of the French Revolution of 1789.
during the French Revolution. Placed at the top of the north tower in 1856, this ring is used daily for basic services, Angelus and ringing hours. The first bell, named Angelique-Françoise, weighs 1,915 kg and is set to C forte; The next bell is called Antoinette-Charlotte, weighing 1,335 kg and set to strong D.
Then there is a bell called Jacinthe-Jeanne with a weight of 925 kg that is set to F and a fourth bell named Denise-David weighs 767 kg and, like Grand Bell Emmanuel, it is set to F forte. A few years later, in 1867, a triple bell at the top with two bells connected to a monumental clock was placed and three other bells were placed on the structure of Our Lady itself, so that they could be heard inside. But, unfortunately, this is currently silent, even though the project is currently underway, and hopefully will be implemented, to restore Carillon to its former glory. The four bells imposed in 1856 are now preserved in February 2012.
About a year later, a set of eight new bells for the north tower of Notre Dame were produced, as well as the large bells for the south tower, the same as before, they were largely destroyed during the French Revolution. The construction of the bells is a method of accuracy and precision to obtain the desired sound and the work has been entrusted to two separate companies, one in France for eight bells and one in Belgium for the Grand Bell. Each new bell bears the name of the name chosen to pay tribute to the saints and those who shaped the life of Paris and Notre Dame.
Emmanuel was accompanied by another large bell in the south tower named Mary. With six tons and playing G Sharp, Mary is the second largest bell in the cathedral. Mary is also called Little Bourdon or the drone bell because it is located next to Emmanuel in the south tower. Built in foundry in the Netherlands, it has engraving as a very distinctive feature, something different from other bells. The words “I judge you Mary” in French and “Via viatores quaerit” in Latin, meaning “Hail Mary” (where the bell takes its name from the Virgin Mary) and “The road seeks travelers”.
Underneath the sentence, a photo of the Child Jesus and his parents appears surrounded by stars and relieved by Magi Adoration. This is responsible for the Little Solennel, which is similar to the Big Solennel, except that the echo of the ringtone begins with the bumblebee and eight bells in the north tower. This ring can only be heard on January 1st (New Year’s Day) at midnight and replaces Emmanuel for international events. Like Emmanuel, the bells are used to mark certain moments such as the arrival at the cathedral of the body of the late archbishop of Paris.
In the north tower, there are eight bells ranging in size from the largest to the smallest. Gabriel is the biggest bell out there; weighs four tons and plays a strong one. Named after the angel Gabriel, who announced the birth of Jesus to the Virgin Mary. Built on a bell cast outside Paris in 2013, it also has a bell all day. Like Emmanuel and Mary, Gabriel is used to mark certain events. It is used mainly for Sunday Masses at regular times and some severity falls during the week to the north plenum. This shows 40 circular lines representing the 40 days Jesus spent in the desert and 40 years of Moses crossing Sinai.
Anne-Geneviève is the second largest bell in the north tower and the fourth largest bell in the cathedral. Named after two saints: St. Anne, the mother of Mary and St. Genevieve the patron saint of Paris, he plays the letter B and weighs three tons. It has three circular lines representing the Holy Trinity and three theological virtues. Like Emmanuel, Marie and Gabriel, Anne-Geneviève was used to mark certain moments such as the opening of the doors of the Palm Sunday Mass or the body of the deceased archbishop of Paris. It is also the only bell that does not participate in the bell called Angelus Domini, which takes place in the summer at 8 a.m., noon and 8 p.m. (or 9 a.m., noon and 9 p.m.).
Denis is the third largest bell in the north tower and the fifth largest bell in the cathedral. Named St. Denis, the martyr who was also the first bishop of Paris around 250; it weighs 2 tons and plays C sharp. This bell belongs to Angelus’ third sentence, “Look at the servant of God.” There are also seven circular lines that symbolize the gift of the Holy Ghost and the seven sacraments.
Marcel is the fourth largest bell in the north tower and the sixth largest bell in the cathedral. Named after the 9th Bishop of Paris. He plays a sharp D and weighs 1.9 tons. Named after Saint Marcel, the ninth bishop of Paris, known for his tireless service to the poor and sick in the 5th century. The bell that bears her name in tribute engraved on her the fourth phrase Angelus, “Do me according to your word.”
Stephen is the fifth largest bell of the north tower and the seventh largest bell of the cathedral. Named after St. Stephen England, the first Christian martyr. It plays a sharp E and weighs 1.5 tons, the most striking feature being its golden line slightly above the nameplate.
Benedict Joseph is the sixth largest bell in the north tower and the eighth largest bell in the cathedral. The bell was named in honor of Pope Benedict XVI, using the French version of his papal name combined with the given name (Joseph). He plays F and weighs 1.3 tons. It has two silver lines above the skirt and a silver line above the nameplate. This bell is used for weddings and sometimes rings in place of Gabriel’s watch, most likely on a bell called Ave Maria.
Mauritius is the seventh largest bell in the north tower and the second smallest in the cathedral. Named after Maurice de Sully, the bishop of Paris who laid the foundation stone for the construction of the cathedral. These include the words “Pray for us, Holy Mother of God.” He plays a sharp G and weighs a ton. It has two grey lines under the nameplate. This bell is used for weddings.
John Mary is the smallest bell in the cathedral. Unlike Benedict-Joseph and Anne-Geneviève, who has two names, the name is borrowed from Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, bishop of Paris from 1981 to 2005, and on which is engraved the eighth and final sentence of Angelus: “of which one could be made worthy” promises of Christ. He plays A pointy and weighs 0.780 tons. It has a small gray stripe above the skirt. This bell is also used for weddings.
Property of Notre Dame de Paris
Until the French Revolution, Notre Dame belonged to the archbishop of Paris and was therefore the Roman Catholic Church. Nationalized on November 2, 1789, it has since become the property of the French state. Under Concordat in 1801, the use of the cathedral was returned to the Church, but not the property. The laws of 1833 and 1838 specified that the cathedral was maintained at the expense of the French government.
in the 1905 Law on the Separation of Church and State, designating the Catholic Church as having the exclusive right to use it for religious purposes forever. Notre Dame is one of seventy historic churches in France with this status. The archdiocese is responsible for the payment of employees, security, heating and cleaning, as well as free access to the cathedral for visitors. The archdiocese does not receive subsidies from the French state.
- The name Notre Dame, which means “Our Lady,” is often used in the names of churches, including the cathedrals of Chartres, Reims and Rouen.
- Excavations have not been able to determine the exact history of the architecture of the island of the City. It seems that Bishop Sully has thoroughly explored the foundations of the Paleo-Christian Basilica so that he can find Our Lady on a rock under the island.
- The population growth of Paris and other French cities was characteristic of Western Europe during the 12th century Renaissance. It is estimated that the population of Paris rose from 25,000 in 1180 to 50,000 in 1220, making it the largest European city outside Italy.